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WARNING: This is an unreleased product. This documentation may reflect functionality not yet implemented, or functionality slated for removal from the product before release. This document should not be taken as an advertisement of final features. For information regarding this product please contact Technologic Systems' Engineering support or sales teams.
TS-1800
Ts-1800.jpg
Product Concept
Product Page
Documentation
Schematic
Mechanical Drawing
FTP Path
DIN / DOUT / ADC
16 / 8 / 14
External Interfaces
2x RJ45 Modbus / USB / 2x 24 Pin IO
Power Requirements
12-24V Modbus
5V USB
Operates around ??
Operating Temperature
Cold -40C
Hot 85C
Mechanical
140mm x 102mm

Contents

1 Overview

The TS-1800 is a Modbus peripheral device that provides 14 ADC channels, 8 digital outputs, and 16 digital inputs.

2 Getting Started

2.1 Power Requirements

The TS-1800 will operate within a range of 10-28 VDC on either Modbus port. Power supplied on the Modbus port is passed along the bus as an active power rail on the other Modbus port. Do not apply power to both Modbus ports.

3 Features

3.1 TS Modbus Support

The TS-1800 can be utilized as a device in a chain of devices on the RS-485 Modbus port; or, as a single peripheral device pm a USB port. When operating on the USB port, the default device address is 0xf6 (246) and the default bit rate is 1,000,000 bps.

When using all Technologic Systems Modbus devices we include functionality to create an arbitrary chain of stock peripherals to automatically enumerate all connected devices, configure them, and generate an I/O map of all connected devices.

3.1.1 TS Modbus Autoconfiguration

The autoconfiguration works by using the optional mode pin on the RJ45 connector as designated in the MODBUS-2W standard. Technologic Systems uses this to indicate if it is a TS device. If it is asserted (low) to a TS device, then it will allow access to the #Holding Registers at address 0xf7.

This will identify the TS Modbus device model, set the first device in the chain to the user specified slave address (default is 0x10), and assert the mode line to the next port to enumerate the next device. The next device address is incremented by 1, and the process is repeated until no slave responds to a read query (timeout)indicats that no additional devices are connected to the bus chain. At this point the last device in the chain is configured to enable bus termination on the RS485 link, and all devices have their bit rates set to the user selected bit rate (default is 9600).


3.2 Funciontality

The TS-1800 provides the following electrically (optically) isolated interfaces:

  • 14 Single Ended ADC channels consisting of:
    • 8 Unipolar ADC channels in the range 0-30 or 0-7.5 VDC
      • Channels 0-1, 2-3, & 4-7 may be configured in blockes to operate as 4-20 mA instrumentation ports. WARNING: Applying more than 5 VDC or more than 22 mA on any unipolar channel while configured for 4-20 mA operation will damage the unit.
    • 6 Bipolar ADC channels in the range +/- 30 or +/- 7.5 VDC
  • 8 digital outputs with 6-bit PWM each driving open drain 500 mA sink capacity
  • 16 digital inputs (0-30 VDC)

Each ADC channel can be enabled or disabled individually and can be set for resolution (and associated sample rate) as follows:

  • 12 bits per sample @ 240 SPS
  • 14 bits per sample @ 60 SPS
  • 16 bits per sample @ 15 SPS

4 Register Interface

4.1 Holding Registers

The interface to all Modbus peripheral devices consists of a set of 127 holding registers. These registers are used to configure the device operation, read and write input output parameters, as well as various settings used to configurable Modbus Address, Termination enable, Data Format, and Bit Rate. These settings are common to all of our Modbus peripherals and can be persisted in on-board flash memory.

NOTE: The device operates ONLY in Modbus RTU communications mode. Modbus ASCII is not presently supported.

Address (hex) Address (dec) Access Description Example Values
0x70 112 Read/Write Modbus Mode 0 = ASCII (unimplemented), 1 = RTU
0x71 113 Read/Write RS485 Bus Termination Enable 0 = Termination disabled, 1 = Termination enabled
0x72 114 Read/Write Modbus Device Address 0-247 (0x00-0xf7) 0 = Broadcast
0x73 115 Read/Write Modbus bit rate Bit Rate
0x74 116 Read Only Unit Model e.g., 0x1400, 0x1700, 0x1800, etc
0x75 117 Read Only Verilog Version e.g., 1
0x76 118 Read Only ZPU Version e.g., 1
0x77 119 Read Only Bus power Supply in millivolts e.g., 23600
0x78 120 Read Only Internal Temperature in 1/100th degree Celsius e.g., 290
0x79 121 Read/Write Reserved or model specific Not applicable or model specific
0x7a 122 Read/Write Reserved or model specific Not applicable or model specific
0x7b 123 Read/Write Reserved or model specific Not applicable or model specific
0x7c 124 Read/Write Reserved or model specific Not applicable or model specific
0x7d 125 Read/Write Write listed value to persist communications (Bit rate, Data format, Address, and Termination) parameters to internal nonvolatile storage: 0xFEED = Persist configuration, 0xDEAD = Erase configuration, 0xC0DE apply configuration without persistence. In all cases the value is set to zero when completed or 0xFA17 (FAIL) if error.
0x7e 126 Read/Write Reserved or model specific Not applicable or model specific

NOTE: All Read Only registers may be written; however, writing to certain registers (e.g., Unit Model) will overwrite the information that will not be refreshed until the unit is reset.


4.1.1 Operational (holding) Registers

Address (hex) Address (dec) Access Description
0 0 Read / Write Channel 0 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
1 1 Read / Write Channel 1 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
2 2 Read / Write Channel 2 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
3 3 Read / Write Channel 3 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
4 4 Read / Write Channel 4 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
5 5 Read / Write Channel 5 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
6 6 Read / Write Channel 6 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
7 7 Read / Write Channel 7 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
8 8 Read / Write Channel 8 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
9 9 Read / Write Channel 9 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
A 10 Read / Write Channel 10 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
B 11 Read / Write Channel 11 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
C 12 Read / Write Channel 12 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
D 13 Read / Write Channel 13 ADC Result (Refer to details below)
E 14 Read / Write Internal 2 VDC reference for channels 8-13
F-11 15-17 Read / Write Unused (Reserved)
12 18 Read / Write Output 0 Control (See below)
13 19 Read / Write Output 1 Control (See below)
14 20 Read / Write Output 2 Control (See below)
15 21 Read / Write Output 3 Control (See below)
16 22 Read / Write Output 4 Control (See below)
17 23 Read / Write Output 5 Control (See below)
18 24 Read / Write Output 6 Control (See below)
19 25 Read / Write Output 7 Control (See below)
1A-1F 26-31 Read / Write Unused (Reserved)
20 32 Read / Write DIO INPUT: Bits 0-15 will reflect the state of the state corresponding input pin (0 or 1).
21 33 Read / Write Unused (Reserved)
22 34 Read / Write DIO OUTPUT: Bits 0-7 are reflected to the corresponding DIO output pins subject to the control of the associated DIO control registers (0x12-0x19)
30 48 Read / Write Channel 0 16-bit ADC raw value. (Positive value only)
31 49 Read / Write Channel 0 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
32 50 Read / Write Channel 1 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
33 51 Read / Write Channel 1 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
34 52 Read / Write Channel 2 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
35 53 Read / Write Channel 2 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
36 54 Read / Write Channel 3 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
37 55 Read / Write Channel 3 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
38 56 Read / Write Channel 4 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
39 57 Read / Write Channel 4 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
3A 58 Read / Write Channel 5 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
3B 59 Read / Write Channel 5 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
3C 60 Read / Write Channel 6 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
3D 61 Read / Write Channel 6 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
3E 62 Read / Write Channel 7 16-bit ADC value. (Positive value only)
3F 63 Read / Write Channel 7 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
0x40-0x4F 64-79 Read / Write Reserved: Warning: Do not access location 64 (0x40) of DIO operations can become spurious
50 80 Read / Write Channel 8 16-bit ADC value. (Positive and Negative values)
51 81 Read / Write Channel 8 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
52 82 Read / Write Channel 9 16-bit ADC value. (Positive and Negative values)
53 83 Read / Write Channel 9 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
54 84 Read / Write Channel 10 16-bit ADC value. (Positive and Negative values)
55 85 Read / Write Channel 10 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
56 86 Read / Write Channel 11 16-bit ADC value. (Positive and Negative values)
57 87 Read / Write Channel 11 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
58 88 Read / Write Channel 12 16-bit ADC value. (Positive and Negative values)
59 89 Read / Write Channel 12 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
5A 90 Read / Write Channel 13 16-bit ADC value. (Positive and Negative values)
5B 91 Read / Write Channel 13 extended channel data (Refer to details below)
5C 92 Read / Write Unused (Reserved)
5D 93 Read / Write Unused (Reserved)
60 96 Read / Write ADC Channel 0-7 Resolution & Speed
61 97 Read / Write ADC Channel 8-13 Resolution & Speed
62 98 Read / Write ADC Range
63 99 Read / Write ADC Channel Enable
64 100 Read / Write ADC Control
65 101 Read / Write High serial number (MAC)
66 102 Read / Write Middle serial number (MAC)
67 103 Read / Write Low serial number (MAC)

4.1.1.1 Output Channel Control Register

Bit 15 Bits 14-6 Bits 5-0
1: Direct DIO output; 0: PWM DIO output Unused (Reserved) PWM Value - 0: Off; 63: 98.4% On

The PWM is scaled in increments of 1/64 (1.56%) per bit in the range of 0/64 through 63/64. To set 100% you must set the Direct DIO Output bit in this register and then set the appropriate bit in the direct output register at holding register 34 (hex 22). NOTE: The PWM range is 0 to 98.4%. The easiest way to do direct per bit control is the set the appropriate output control register (0x12-0x19) to 0x8000 and manupulate the bit in DIO Output (0x22). To use the full range of the PWM, set the appropriate output register bit (0x22) to 1. Then set the ADC control register to a value from 0 to 63 (0-98.4%) or 0x8000 (100%).

4.1.1.2 ADC Channel Control Registers

4.1.1.2.1 ADC Channel 16-bit Result details

ADC Channel 16-bit Result details The 8 unipolar channels in holding registers 0-7 contain the following values based on the range (gain) and 4-20 mA selection, this value is a 15-bit positive number representing:

  • 0 to +30 VDC (mV)
  • 0 to +7.5 VDC (mV)
  • 4 to 20 mA (µA)

WARNING: Applying more than 5 VDC or more than 22 mA on any unipolar channel while configured for 4-20 mA operation will damage the unit.

The 6 bipolar channels in holding registers 8-13 contain the following values based on the range (gain), this value is a 16-bit signed number representing:

  • -30 to +30 VDC (mV)
  • -7.5 to +7.5 VDC (mV)
4.1.1.2.2 Extended ADC Channel Result details

The 1st 16-bit value of the extended channel data contains the 16-bit ADC value as presented in the first 14 holding registers

The 2nd 16-bit value of the extended channel data contains the following additional information

Bit 15-8 Bits 7 Bits 6-5 Bits 4 Bits 3-0
Sequence number Channel is 4-20 mA current Loop if set to 1 Resolution and Speed (See below) Channel Range (see below) ADC Channel number
  • Resolution and Speed
    • 0: 12 bits @ 240 sps
    • 1: 14 bits @ 60 sps
    • 2: 16 bits @ 15 sps)
  • Range:
    • 0 0 to +30 V (Channel 0-7)
    • 0 -30 to +30 V (Channel 8-13)
    • 1 0 to +7.5 V or 4-20 mA (Channel 0-7)
    • 1 -7.5 to +7.5 V (Channel 8-13)
4.1.1.2.3 ADC Channels Configuration Register Details

ADC Channel 0-7 Resolution

Bit 15:14 Bit 13:12 Bit 11:10 Bit 9:8 Bit 7:6 Bit 5:4 Bit 3:2 Bit 1:0
Ch 7 Ch 6 Ch 5 Ch 4 Ch 3 Ch 2 Ch 1 Ch 0

ADC Channel 8-13 Resolution

Bit 15:14 Bit 13:12 Bit 11:10 Bit 9:8 Bit 7:6 Bit 5:4 Bit 3:2 Bit 1:0
Unused Unused Ch 13 Ch 12 Ch 11 Ch 10 Ch 9 Ch 8

ADC Channel Resolution (and implied speed) values

Value Resolution (Bits) Speed (Samples per Second)
0 12 240
1 14 60
2 16 15

ADC Channel 0-13 Range

The ADC channel range register contains a single bit per channel. Setting the associated bit to 0 sets the 0-30 (channels 0-7) or +/- 30 (channels 8-13) VDC range. Setting the associated bit to 1 sets the 0-7.5 (channels 0-7) or +/- 7.5 (channels 8-13) VDC range.

Bit 15:14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Unused / Reserved C13 C12 C11 C10 C9 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0

ADC Channel 0-13 Enable

The ADC channel enable register contains a single bit per channel. Setting the associated bit to 1 enables the channel during the confiuration cycle.

Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0
Unused / Reserved C13 C12 C11 C10 C9 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C0

ADC Control Register

After setting the channel resolution, range, and enable parameters, this register is used to set the 4-20mA parameters and perform the unit configuration. Setting the Start bit will begin the configuration. When the unit configuration is completed, the Start bit will be cleared, and the Complete bit will be set. If any erros occurred (generally an invalid setting), the Error bit will also be set.

Bit 15 Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12 Bit 11 Bit 10 Bit 9 Bit 8 Bit 7:0
Error Complete Unused Start Unused C7:4 C3:2 C1:0 Unused


4.2 Communications Bit Rates

The TS-1800 supports 15 speeds:

Value Communication Bit Rate Maximum CAT5 Cable Length
0 300 1200 meters
1 600 1200 meters
2 1200 1200 meters
3 2400 1200 meters
4 4800 1200 meters
5 9600 1200 meters
6 19.2K 1200 meters
7 38.4K 1200 meters
8 57.6K 1200 meters
9 115.2K 800 meters
10 230.4K [1] 400 meters
11 460.8K [1] 200 meters
12 1040K [1] 100 meters
13 2080K [1] 40 meters
14 4160K [1] 20 meters
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 On Linux systems, stting these bit rates requires code using ioctl() with the TCGETS2 and TCSETS2 parameters.

5 Connectors

5.1 2x RJ45 Modbus

Both RJ45 ports, and all of our Modbus based devices are designed to be compatible with 2W-MODBUS RJ-45 following this pinout:

ModbusRJ45.png

5.2 USB Device Port

Ts-1800-connectors-modbus.jpg


5.3 22 Pin Removable Terminal Blocks

The two terminal blocks are removable connectors that provides all of the DIO and ADC connections as listed below.

P1A / P1B - Top & Bottom Connector Signal Layout

Pin P1A (Top) Signal Description Pin P1B (Bottom) Signal Description
1 (Left) ADC Channel 0 23 (Left) Isloated Gounrd
2 ADC Channel 1 24 Isloated Gounrd
3 ADC Channel 2 25 Isloated Gounrd
4 ADC Channel 3 26 Isloated Gounrd
5 ADC Channel 4 27 Isloated Gounrd
6 ADC Channel 5 28 Isloated Gounrd
7 ADC Channel 6 29 Digital Input 0
8 ADC Channel 7 30 Digital Input 1
9 ADC Channel 8 31 Digital Input 2
10 ADC Channel 9 32 Digital Input 3
11 ADC Channel 10 33 Digital Input 4
12 ADC Channel 11 34 Digital Input 5
13 ADC Channel 12 35 Digital Input 6
14 ADC Channel 13 36 Digital Input 7
15 Digital Output 0 37 Digital Input 8
16 Digital Output 1 38 Digital Input 9
17 Digital Output 2 39 Digital Input 10
18 Digital Output 3 40 Digital Input 11
10 Digital Output 4 41 Digital Input 12
20 Digital Output 5 42 Digital Input 13
21 Digital Output 6 43 Digital Input 14
22 (Right) Digital Output 7 44 (Right) Digital Input 15

TS-1800-IO.jpg


Ts-1800-label22-p1.jpg

6 Product Notes

6.1 Modbus Linux Utility Programs

Modbus Linux register access program: mbpeekpoke

root@ts4700:/home/zpu# ./mbpeekpoke -?

Usage: mbpeekpoke -switch parameter [OPTIOSN] ...
Download and start a ZPU program.  Optionally persist the code
Default parameter values in [brackets]
  -?                     This help screen
  -b  bit_rate           Bit rate [9600]
                         300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200
                         38400, 57600, 115200, 1000000, 4000000
  -c  connection         IP:Port IP address:port [127.0.0.1:7350]
                         Serial port [/dev/ttySP2]
  -D                     Device to access: [C]oil, [R]egister, [I]nput, [P]acket
  -d                     Display packet debugging information [Off]
  -f                     Register display output format:
                         'X' hex, 'S' signed decimal 'U' unsigned decimal [Hex]
  -h                     This help screen
  -n  number_of_items    number of items to read [1]
  -m  Board model #      7670 with serial [any other using TCP socket connection]
  -r  address            Read: Device @ specified address
  -s  slave_address      hexadecimal 00-f8; 00 is broadcast [0xf7]
  -v  data               value to write
  -V                     Verbose mode - display additional debug information
  -w  address            Write: Device @ specified address
 The (-w) write option requires a single (-v) variable
 The (-r) read option can read a number of items with the (-n) switch
 Both the -w & -r options may be used on the same or different addresses
 however, they must both use the same device (-D) and the write is performed first

Modbus Linux register access program for TS-7670: mbpeekpoke7670

root@ts4700:/home/zpu# ./mbpeekpoke7670 -?

Usage: mbpeekpoke7670 -switch parameter [OPTIOSN] ...
Default parameter values in [brackets]
  -?                     This help screen
  -b  bit_rate           Bit rate [9600]
                         300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200
                         38400, 57600, 115200, 1000000, 4000000
  -h                     This help screen
  -n  number_of_items    number of items to read [1]
  -r  address            Read: Register @ specified hex address
  -s  slave_address      hexadecimal 00-f7; 00 is broadcast [0xf7]
  -u                     Use USB connection
  -v  data               value to write
  -w  address            Write: Register @ specified address
 The (-w) write option requires a single (-v) variable
 The (-r) read option can read a number of items with the (-n) switch


These programs are used to perform accesses to the Modbus devices register set. It allows the writing of arbitrary hex data to any hex register address one at a time and the reading of blocks of arbitrary data from any hex register addres displayed in hex, signed, or unsigned decimal.


Modbus Linux device configuration program: mb_config

root@ts4700:/home/zpu# ./mb_config -?

Usage: mb_config -switch paramater [OPTIOSN] ...
Configure a Modbus device for legacy mode by setting operational parameters
Default parameter values in [brackets]
  -?                     This help screen
  -b  bit_rate           Bit rate [9600]
                         300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200
                         38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800
                         1040000, 2080000, 4160000
  -C  Configuration      Model 1700: 8 character field starting @ DIO bit 7 thru 0
                         Use single letters 'T' Temperature; 'I' Input: 'O' Output
                         All Other model: Not required
  -c  connection IP:Port IP address:port [127.0.0.1:7350]
  -d                     Display packet debugging information [Off]
  -f  format (data)      Data format: 8N1, 8N2, 8E1, 8O1, [8N1]
  -h                     This help screen
  -i                     Display I/O accesses
  -I                     Inhibit actual writing
  -m  Board model #      7670 with serial [any other using TCP socket connection]
  -n                     Noninteractive mode [off]
  -p                     Display progress messages [Off]
  -s  slave_address      hexadecimal 00-f6; 00 is broadcast [0x10]
  -t  termination        Terminstion on / off [off]
  -v                     verboce output mode
  DIO Configration for Model TS-1700
root@ts4700:/home/zpu#

This program is used to perform configuration of a Modbus device. On older modbuc devices these settings (Slave address, Communications bit rate and data format, termination) would have been performed via DIP switches. This configuration information is stored in non-volatile memory on the device.


The primary difference in usage of these utilities depends on the hosting platform.

On SBC products using the XUART communications devices, the -c switch and parameter does not need to be specified, since the default communications port is correct.

On the TS-7670 with a standard UART communications device, the '-m 7670' switch should be specified. This allows the proper hardware setting for the RS-485 port to be utilized.

On SBC products with a host USB port for communications, the -c switch should be specified and paramater should be the USB to Serial communication device, which is generally '/dev/ttyACM0'. The '-s f6' switch and parameter is required since the unit operates at a different slave address when operating via USB. The bit rate does not need to be specified, since the USB port will operate at the fastest rate possible (up to approximately 1000000 bps).

6.2 Modbus Windows Utility Programs

Modbus Windows register access program: ModbusDeviceAccess


TsModbusAccess.PNG


These programs are used to perform accesses to the Modbus devices register set. It allows the writing of arbitrary hex data to any hex register address one at a time and the reading of blocks of arbitrary data from any hex register addres displayed in hex, signed, or unsigned decimal.

  • Use of this utility requires the following steps:
    • 1. Select the COM port from the drop down box
    • 2. Select the bit rate from the drop down box
    • 3. Select the correct data format (8N1 is default)
    • 4. Enter the connected device slave address after selecting the format (Hex or Decimal)
    • NOTICE:The coil functionality is currently not functional in Windows
    • 5. Select the resource type (Regoster, Input, or Coil)
    • 6a. Set the resoucw index (e.g., Register number) and count for reading
    • 6b. Set the resoucw index (e.g., Register number) and value for writing
    • 7. Click the appropriate button to read or write the device


Modbus Windows device configuration program: ModbusDeviceConfigure

TsModbusConfigure.PNG

This program is used to perform configuration of a Technologic Systems Modbus device. On older Modbuc devices these settings (Slave address, Communications bit rate and data format, termination) would have been performed via DIP switches. This configuration information is stored in non-volatile memory on the device. This utility is designed to operate on devices confired as factory degault, 9600, N81, address 0cf7. Windows USB connections are not currently supported, so the devie should be connected via a TS-142 ISB to Serial Modbus adapter is required.

  • Use of this utility requires the following steps:
    • 1. Select the COM port from the drop down box
    • NOTICE:The USB functionality is currently not operational on Windows
    • 2. Select the COM port type (USB or Serial)
    • 3. Click Identify
    • The model willl appear at the top of the page
    • 4. Select the Data Format, Slave Address, Bit Rate, and Termination
    • 5. Click Configure

7 FCC Advisory

This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used properly (that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions), may cause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the owner will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

If this equipment does cause interference, which can be determined by turning the unit on and off, the user is encouraged to try the following measures to correct the interference:

Reorient the receiving antenna. Relocate the unit with respect to the receiver. Plug the unit into a different outlet so that the unit and receiver are on different branch circuits. Ensure that mounting screws and connector attachment screws are tightly secured. Ensure that good quality, shielded, and grounded cables are used for all data communications. If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions. The following booklets prepared by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) may also prove helpful:

How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems (Stock No. 004-000-000345-4) Interface Handbook (Stock No. 004-000-004505-7) These booklets may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

7.1 Limited Warranty

Technologic Systems warrants this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from date of purchase. During this warranty period Technologic Systems will repair or replace the defective unit in accordance with the following process:

A copy of the original invoice must be included when returning the defective unit to Technologic Systems, Inc. This limited warranty does not cover damages resulting from lightning or other power surges, misuse, abuse, abnormal conditions of operation, or attempts to alter or modify the function of the product.

This warranty is limited to the repair or replacement of the defective unit. In no event shall Technologic Systems be liable or responsible for any loss or damages, including but not limited to any lost profits, incidental or consequential damages, loss of business, or anticipatory profits arising from the use or inability to use this product.

Repairs made after the expiration of the warranty period are subject to a repair charge and the cost of return shipping. Please, contact Technologic Systems to arrange for any repair service and to obtain repair charge information.