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TS-7180
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Freescale i.MX6ul 696MHz
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Contents

1 Overview

The TS-7180 is an SBC designed for low power systems and is ideal for remote deployment and fleet tracking.

2 Getting Started

A Linux PC is recommended for development, and will be assumed for this documentation. For users in Windows or OSX we recommend virtualizing a Linux PC. Most of our platforms run Debian and if there is no personal distribution preference this is what we recommend for ease of use.

Virtualization

Suggested Linux Distributions

It may be possible to develop using a Windows or OSX system, but this is not supported. Development will include accessing drives formatted for Linux and often Linux based tools.

2.1 Getting Console and Powering up

WARNING: Be sure to take appropriate Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) precautions. Disconnect the power source before moving, cabling, or performing any set up procedures. Inappropriate handling may cause damage to the device.

Get console input by plugging a USB type B cable into P4. Connect the host side to a workstation for development. Console can be viewed before or after power is applied. Boot messages will only be printed once the device is powered on.


The cp210x (USB Serial) driver is included in most popular distributions. This will show up as /dev/ttyUSB0. For other operating systems:

The serial console is provided through this port at 115200 baud, 8n1, with no flow control. Picocom is the recommended linux client to use which can be run with the following command:

sudo picocom -b 115200 /dev/ttyUSB0

This will output some serial setting information and then "Terminal ready". Any messages after this point will be from the device via the serial output. The terminal is now ready and power can be applied in order to boot up the device. Power is applied through the power connector, CN7. This accepts an 8-28 VDC input.

Once power is applied, the device will output information via the console. The first output is from U-Boot:

U-Boot 2016.03-14506-gfee2f5b (Jan 13 2017 - 12:29:29 -0700)                    
                                                                                
CPU:   Freescale i.MX6UL rev1.1 at 396 MHz                                      
Reset cause: POR                                                                
Board: Technologic Systems TS-7180                                              
FPGA:  Rev 0                                                                    
I2C:   ready                                                                    
DRAM:  512 MiB                                                                  
MMC:   FSL_SDHC: 0, FSL_SDHC: 1                                                 
*** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment                                
                                                                                
Net:   FEC0 [PRIME]
Press Ctrl+C to abort autoboot in 1 second(s) 

You may break into U-Boot at this point, by pressing Control+C at your terminal; otherwise, what U-Boot does next depends on the "U-Boot" jumper. If installed, U-Boot will check for USB updates, and then drop to the U-Boot prompt. If the U-Boot jumper is not installed, then the "SD Boot" jumper will be examined: when installed, it will cause U-Boot to boot to SD; otherwise, U-Boot will boot to eMMC.

20170224 140329.jpg

Note: The "*** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment" can be safely ignored. This indicates that u-boot scripts are not being customized. Typing "env save" will hide these messages, but this is not essential.


Console from Windows

Putty is a small simple client available for download here. Open up Device Manager to determine your console port. See the putty configuration image for more details.

Device Manager Putty Configuration

3 U-Boot

3.1 U-Boot Environment

The U-Boot environment on the TS-7180 is stored in the on-board eMMC flash.

# Print all environment variables
env print -a
 
# Sets the variable bootdelay to 5 seconds
env set bootdelay 5;
 
# Variables can also contain commands
env set hellocmd 'led red on; echo Hello world; led green on;'
 
# Execute commands saved in a variable
env run hellocmd;
 
# Commit env changes to the spi flash
# Otherwise changes are lost
env save
 
# Restore env to default
env default -a
 
# Remove a variable
env delete emmcboot

3.2 U-Boot Commands

# The most important command is 
help
# This can also be used to see more information on a specific command
help i2c
 
# Boots into the binary at $loadaddr.  This file needs to have
# the uboot header from mkimage.  A uImage already contains this.
bootm
# Boots into the binary at $loadaddr, skips the initrd, specifies
# the fdtaddr so Linux knows where to find the board support
bootm ${loadaddr} - ${fdtaddr}
 
# Get a DHCP address
dhcp
# This sets ${ipaddr}, ${dnsip}, ${gatewayip}, ${netmask}
# and ${ip_dyn} which can be used to check if the dhcp was successful
 
# These commands are used for scripting:
false # do nothing, unsuccessfully
true # do nothing, successfully
 
# This command lets you set fuses in the processor
# Setting fuses can brick your board, will void your warranty,
# and should not be done in most cases
fuse
 
# Control LEDs
led red on
led green on
led all off
led red toggle
 
# This command is used to copy a file from most devices
# Load kernel from SD
load mmc 0:1 ${loadaddr} /boot/uImage
# Load Kernel from eMMC
load mmc 1:1 ${loadaddr} /boot/uImage
 
 
# You can view the fdt from u-boot with fdt
load mmc 0:1 ${fdtaddr} /boot/imx6ul-ts7180.dtb
fdt addr ${fdtaddr}
fdt print
 
# You can blindly jump into any memory
# This is similar to bootm, but it does not use the 
# u-boot header
load mmc 0:1 ${loadaddr} /boot/custombinary
go ${loadaddr}
 
# Browse fat,ext2,ext3,or ext4 filesystems:
ls mmc 0:1 /
 
# Access memory like devmem in Linux, you can read/write arbitrary memory
# using mw and md
# write
mw 0x10000000 0xc0ffee00 1
# read
md 0x10000000 1
 
# Test memory.
mtest
 
# Check for new SD card
mmc rescan
# Read SD card size
mmc dev 0
mmcinfo
# Read eMMC Size
mmc dev 1
mmcinfo
 
# The NFS command is like 'load', but used over the network
dhcp
env set serverip 192.168.0.11
nfs ${loadaddr} 192.168.0.11:/path/to/somefile
 
# Test ICMP
dhcp
ping 192.168.0.11
 
# Reboot
reset
 
# Delay in seconds
sleep 10
 
# You can load HUSH scripts that have been created with mkimage
load mmc 0:1 ${loadaddr} /boot/ubootscript
source ${loadaddr}
 
# Most commands have return values that can be used to test
# success, and HUSH scripting supports comparisons like
# test in Bash, but much more minimal
if load mmc 1:1 ${fdtaddr} /boot/uImage;
	then echo Loaded Kernel
else
	echo Could not find kernel
fi
 
# Commands can be timed with "time"
time bdinfo
 
# Print U-boot version/build information
version

4 Debian

Debian is a community run Linux distribution. Debian provides tens of thousands of precompiled applications and services. This distribution is known for stability and large community providing support and documentation.

4.1 Getting Started with Debian

Once installed the default user is "root" with no password.


To prepare an SD card, use partitioning tools such as 'fdisk' 'cfdisk' or 'gparted' in linux to create a single linux partition on the SD card. See the guide here for more information. Once it is formatted, extract the above tarball with:

# Assuming your SD card is /dev/sdc with one partition
mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdc1
mkdir /mnt/sd/
sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/sd/
sudo tar xjf debian-armhf-jessie-latest.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/sd
sudo umount /mnt/sd
sync
Note: The ext4 filesystem can be used instead of ext3, but it may require additional options. U-Boot does not support the 64bit addressing added as the default behavior in recent revisions of mkfs.ext4. If using e2fsprogs 1.43 or newer, the options "-O ^64bit,^metadata_csum" must be used with ext4 for proper compatibility. Older versions of e2fsprogs do not need these options passed nor are they needed for ext3.

To rewrite the eMMC the unit must be booted to SD or any other media that is not eMMC. Once booted, run the following commands.:

mkfs.ext3 /dev/mmcblk2p1
mkdir /mnt/emmc
mount /dev/mmcblk2p1 /mnt/emmc
wget -qO- ftp://ftp.embeddedarm.com/ts-arm-sbc/ts-7180-linux/distributions/debian/debian-armhf-jessie-latest.tar.bz2 | tar xj -C /mnt/emmc/
umount /mnt/emmc
sync


The same commands can be used to write a SATA drive by substituting /dev/mmcblk2p1 with /dev/sda1.

4.2 Debian Networking

From almost any Linux system you can use 'ip' command or the 'ifconfig' and 'route' commands to initially set up the network.

# Bring up the CPU network interface
ifconfig eth0 up
 
# Or if you're on a baseboard with a second ethernet port, you can use that as:
ifconfig eth1 up
 
# Set an ip address (assumes 255.255.255.0 subnet mask)
ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.50
 
# Set a specific subnet
ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.50 netmask 255.255.0.0
 
# Configure your route.  This is the server that provides your internet connection.
route add default gw 192.168.0.1
 
# Edit /etc/resolv.conf for your DNS server
echo "nameserver 192.168.0.1" > /etc/resolv.conf

Most networks will offer a DHCP server, an IP address can be obtained from a server with a single command in linux:

Configure DHCP in Debian:

# To setup the default CPU ethernet port
dhclient eth0
# Or if you're on a baseboard with a second ethernet port, you can use that as:
dhclient eth1
# You can configure all ethernet ports for a dhcp response with
dhclient


Systemd provides a networking configuration option to allow for automatic configuration on startup. Systemd-networkd has a number of different configuration files, some of the default examples and setup steps are outlined below.

/etc/systemd/network/eth.network

[Match]
Name=eth*
 
[Network]
DHCP=yes

To use DHCP to configure DNS via systemd, start and enable the network name resolver service, systemd-resolved:

systemctl start systemd-resolved.service 
systemctl enable systemd-resolved.service
ln -s /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf


For a static config create a network configuration for that specific interface.

/etc/systemd/network/eth0.network

[Match]
Name=eth0
 
[Network]
Address=192.168.0.50/24
Gateway=192.168.0.1
DNS=192.168.0.1

For more information on networking, see Debian and systemd's documentation:

4.2.1 Debian WIFI Client

Note: To use WiFi on this product, the wilc3000 driver must be installed. Run "tshwctl -a 1 -w3;modprobe wilc3000" before continuing

If connecting to a WPA/WPA2 network, a wpa_supplicant config file must first be created:

wpa_passphrase yournetwork yournetworkpassphrase > /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-wlan0.conf


Create the file /lib/systemd/system/wpa_supplicant@.service with these contents

[Unit]
Description=WPA supplicant daemon (interface-specific version)
Requires=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device
After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device
 
[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/sbin/wpa_supplicant -c/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-%I.conf -i%I
 
[Install]
Alias=multi-user.target.wants/wpa_supplicant@%i.service


Create the file /etc/systemd/network/wlan0.network with:

[Match]
Name=wlan0
 
[Network]
DHCP=yes

See the systemctl-networkd example for setting a static IP for a network interface. The wlan0.network can be configured the same way as an eth.network.


To enable all of the changes that have been made, run the following commands:

systemctl enable wpa_supplicant@wlan0
systemctl start wpa_supplicant@wlan0
systemctl restart systemd-networkd

4.2.2 Debian WIFI Access Point

First, hostapd needs to be installed in order to manage the access point on the device:

apt-get update && apt-get install hostapd -y

Edit /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf to include the following lines:

interface=wlan0
driver=nl80211
ssid=YourAPName
channel=1
Note: Refer to the kernel's hostapd documentation for more wireless configuration options.


To start the access point launch hostapd:

hostapd /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf &

This will start up an access point that can be detected by WIFI clients. A DHCP server will likely be desired to assign IP addresses. Refer to Debian's documentation for more details on DHCP configuration.

4.3 Debian Application Development

4.3.1 Debian Jessie Cross Compiling

Debian Jessie provides cross compilers from its distribution. An install on a workstation can build for the same release on other architectures. A PC, virtual machine, or chroot will need to be used for this. Install Debian Jessie for your workstation here.

From a Debian workstation (not the target), run these commands to set up the cross compiler:

# Run "lsb_release -a" and verify Debian 8.X is returned.  These instructions are not
# expected to work on any other version or distribution.
 
apt-get install curl build-essential
 
su root
echo "deb http://emdebian.org/tools/debian jessie main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/emdebian.list
curl http://emdebian.org/tools/debian/emdebian-toolchain-archive.key | apt-key add -
# Note that while Ubuntu uses apt as well, Ubuntu host setup is slightly different, instead of the above commands use the following:
# echo "deb [arch=armhf] http://ports.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-ports trusty main restricted universe multiverse" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# echo "deb [arch=armhf] http://ports.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-ports trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
# echo "deb [arch=armhf] http://ports.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-ports trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
dpkg --add-architecture armhf
apt-get update
apt-get install crossbuild-essential-armhf

This will install a toolchain that can be used with the prefix "arm-linux-gnueabihf-". The standard GCC tools will start with that name, eg "arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc".

The toolchain can now compile a simple hello world application. Create hello-world.c on the Debian workstation:

#include <stdio.h>
int main(){
    printf("Hello World\n");
}

To compile this:

arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc hello-world.c -o hello-world
file hello-world

This will return that the binary created is for ARM. Copy this to the target platform to run it there.

Debian Jessie supports multiarch which can install packages designed for other architectures. On workstations this is how 32-bit and 64-bit support is provided. This can also be used to install armhf packages on an x86 based workstation.

This cross compile environment can link to a shared library from the Debian root. The package would be installed in Debian on the workstation to provide headers and .so. This is included in most "-dev" packages. When run on the arm target it will also need a copy of the library installed, but it does not need the -dev package.

apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev:armhf
 
# Download the simple.c example from curl:
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/bagder/curl/master/docs/examples/simple.c
# After installing the supporting library, curl will link as compiling on the unit.
arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc simple.c -o simple -lcurl

Copy the binary to the target platform and run on the target. This can be accomplished with network protocols like NFS, SCP, FTP, etc.

If any created binaries do not rely on hardware support like GPIO or CAN, they can be run using qemu.

# using the hello world example from before:
./hello-world
# Returns Exec format error
apt-get install qemu-user-static
./hello-world

4.4 Debian Installing New Software

Debian provides the apt-get system which allows management of pre-built applications. The apt tools require a network connection to the internet in order to automatically download and install new software. The update command will download a list of the current versions of pre-built packages.

apt-get update

A common example is installing Java runtime support for a system. Find the package name first with search, and then install it.

root@ts:~# apt-cache search openjdk
jvm-7-avian-jre - lightweight virtual machine using the OpenJDK class library
freemind - Java Program for creating and viewing Mindmaps
icedtea-7-plugin - web browser plugin based on OpenJDK and IcedTea to execute Java applets
default-jdk - Standard Java or Java compatible Development Kit
default-jdk-doc - Standard Java or Java compatible Development Kit (documentation)
default-jre - Standard Java or Java compatible Runtime
default-jre-headless - Standard Java or Java compatible Runtime (headless)
jtreg - Regression Test Harness for the OpenJDK platform
libreoffice - office productivity suite (metapackage)
icedtea-7-jre-jamvm - Alternative JVM for OpenJDK, using JamVM
openjdk-7-dbg - Java runtime based on OpenJDK (debugging symbols)
openjdk-7-demo - Java runtime based on OpenJDK (demos and examples)
openjdk-7-doc - OpenJDK Development Kit (JDK) documentation
openjdk-7-jdk - OpenJDK Development Kit (JDK)
openjdk-7-jre - OpenJDK Java runtime, using Hotspot Zero
openjdk-7-jre-headless - OpenJDK Java runtime, using Hotspot Zero (headless)
openjdk-7-jre-lib - OpenJDK Java runtime (architecture independent libraries)
openjdk-7-source - OpenJDK Development Kit (JDK) source files
uwsgi-app-integration-plugins - plugins for integration of uWSGI and application
uwsgi-plugin-jvm-openjdk-7 - Java plugin for uWSGI (OpenJDK 7)
uwsgi-plugin-jwsgi-openjdk-7 - JWSGI plugin for uWSGI (OpenJDK 7)
                                                       

In this case you will want the openjdk-7-jre package. Names of packages are on Debian's wiki or the packages site.

With the package name apt-get install can be used to install the prebuilt packages.

apt-get install openjdk-7-jre
# More than one package can be installed at a time.
apt-get install openjdk-7-jre nano vim mplayer

For more information on using apt-get refer to Debian's documentation here.

4.5 Debian Setting up SSH

To install ssh, install the package as normal with apt-get:

apt-get install openssh-server


Make sure the device is configured on the network and set a password for the remote user. SSH will not allow remote connections without a password or a valid SSH key pair.

passwd root

After this setup it is now possible to connect from a remote PC supporting SSH. On Linux/OS X this is the "ssh" command, or from Windows using a client such as PuTTY.

Note: If a DNS server is not present on the target network, it is possible to save time at login by adding "UseDNS no" in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

4.6 Debian Starting Automatically

A systemd service can be created to start up headless applications. Create a file in /etc/systemd/system/yourapp.service

[Unit]
Description=Run an application on startup
 
[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/your_app_or_script
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

If networking is a dependency add "After=network.target" in the Unit section. Once you have this file in place add it to startup with:

# Start the app on startup, but will not start it now
systemctl enable yourapp.service
 
# Start the app now, but doesn't change auto startup
systemctl start yourapp.service
Note: See the systemd documentation for in depth documentation on services.

To start an application on bootup with X11 instead change the x-session-manager. By default the system starts xfce:

root@ts:~# ls -lah /usr/bin/x-session-manager 
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 35 May 26  2015 /usr/bin/x-session-manager -> /etc/alternatives/x-session-manager
root@ts:~# ls -lah /etc/alternatives/x-session-manager
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 May 26  2015 /etc/alternatives/x-session-manager -> /usr/bin/startxfce4

The x-session can be modified to only start specified processes. Create the file /usr/bin/mini-x-session with these contents:

#!/bin/bash
matchbox-window-manager -use_titlebar no &
 
exec xfce4-terminal

You may need to "apt-get install matchbox-window-manager." first. This is a tiny window manager which also has a few flags that simplify embedded use. Now enable this session manager and restart slim to restart x11 and show it now.

chmod a+x /usr/bin/mini-x-session
rm /etc/alternatives/x-session-manager
ln -s /usr/bin/mini-x-session /etc/alternatives/x-session-manager
service slim restart

If the x-session-manager process ever closes x11 will restart. The exec command allows a new process to take over the existing PID. In the above example xfce4-terminal takes over the PID of x-session-manager. If the terminal is closed with commands like exit the slim/x11 processes will restart.

5 Backup / Restore

5.1 MicroSD Card

These instructions assume you have an SD card with one partition. Most SD cards ship this way by default, but if you have modified the partitions you may need to use a utility such as gparted or fdisk to remove partitions and recreate it with one partition.

Plug the SD card into a USB reader and connect it to your Linux PC. These instructions assume your SD interface is /dev/sdc, but check dmesg in your PC to see what

Running these commands will reflash the SD card to our default latest image.

# Verify nothing else has this mounted
sudo umount /dev/sdc1
 
sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdc1
sudo mkdir /mnt/sd
sudo mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/sd/
wget ftp://ftp.embeddedarm.com/ts-socket-macrocontrollers/ts-7180-linux/distributions/debian/debian-armhf-jessie-latest.tar.bz2
 
sudo tar -xjf debian-armhf-jessie-latest.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/sd
sudo umount /mnt/sd
sync

After it is written you can verify the data was written correctly. Reinsert the disk to verify any block cache is gone, then run these:

mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/sd
cd /mnt/sd/
sudo md5sum -c md5sums.txt
umount /mnt/sd
sync

The md5sums command will report what differences there are, if any, and return if it passed or failed.

5.2 eMMC

The simplest way to backup/restore the eMMC is through u-boot. If you boot up and stop in u-boot you can run this command:

ums 0 mmc 1

This will make the board act as a USB mass storage device with direct access to the emmc disk. On a linux workstation, to backup the image:

dmesg | tail -n 30
# Look for the last /dev/sd* device connected.  This should also match the eMMC
# size of around 3.78GiB.  On my system, this is /dev/sdd.
sudo mkdir /mnt/emmc/
sudo mount /dev/mmcblk1p1 /mnt/emmc/
cd /mnt/emmc/
tar -cjf /path/to/ts7180-backup-image.tar.bz2
cd ../
umount /mnt/emmc/
sync

To write a new filesystem to the TS-7180:

dmesg | tail -n 30
# Look for the last /dev/sd* device connected.  This should also match the eMMC
# size of around 3.78GiB.  On my system, this is /dev/sdd.
sudo mkdir /mnt/emmc/
sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/mmcblk1p1
# If the above command fails, use fdisk or gparted to repartition the emmc
# to have one large partition.
sudo mount /dev/mmcblk1p1 /mnt/emmc/
tar -xjf /path/to/ts7180-new-image.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/emmc
umount /mnt/emmc/
sync

6 Compile the Kernel

This board has several kernels released and available in our git depending on the branch name. Compiling the kernel requires an armhf toolchain. We recommend development under Debian which includes an armhf compiler in the repositories.

This also requires several tools from your distribution. For Debian:

su root
 
apt-get install curl git build-essential lzop u-boot-tools libncursesw5-dev
echo "deb http://emdebian.org/tools/debian jessie main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/emdebian.list
curl http://emdebian.org/tools/debian/emdebian-toolchain-archive.key | apt-key add -
dpkg --add-architecture armhf
apt-get update
apt-get install crossbuild-essential-armhf

For Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install crossbuild-essential-armhf git build-essential lzop u-boot-tools libncursesw5-dev

Once those are installed:

git clone https://github.com/embeddedarm/linux-tsimx
cd linux-tsimx
git checkout ts-imx_4.1.15_2.0.0_ga
 
## If you are using the 64-bit toolchain:
export CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf-
export ARCH=arm
export LOADADDR=0x80800000
 
make tsimx6ul_defconfig
 
## Make any changes in "make menuconfig" or driver modifications, then compile
make && make uImage

To install this to a board you would use a USB SD reader and plug in the card. Assuming your Linux rootfs is all on "sdc1":

export DEV=/dev/sdc1
sudo mount "$DEV" /mnt/sd
sudo rm /mnt/sd/boot/uImage
sudo cp arch/arm/boot/uImage  /mnt/sd/boot/uImage
sudo cp arch/arm/boot/dts/imx6*ts*.dtb /mnt/sd/boot/
INSTALL_MOD_PATH="/mnt/sd" sudo -E make modules_install 
INSTALL_HDR_PATH="/mnt/sd" sudo -E make headers_install
sudo umount /mnt/sd/
sync

7 Features

7.1 ADC

The TS-7180 has four channels of ADC, and those inputs are available on the P3 connector, as AN_IN_1 through AN_IN_4. Each input may be configured to measure voltage in two ranges (0-2.5V and 0-10.9V), or a 20mA current-loop.

The standard linux kernel offers a simple interface to the ADC that does not require any sort of programming to use. For example, to see the "raw" reading from the AN_IN_1 input, type the following command:

cat /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio\:device0/in_voltage4_raw

To convert this raw value to a voltage, it must be multiplied by the "scaling factor", which can be found by typing the following command:

cat /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio\:device0/in_voltage_scale

The result will be in millivolts. If you have the bc utility installed, you can enter the following command:

echo `cat /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio\:device0/in_voltage4_raw` \* `cat /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio\:device0/in_voltage_scale` | bc

To switch to the 10.9V input range, the appropriate enable must be set high. Each input AN_IN_1 through AN_IN_4 has its own enable, EN_ADC1_10V through EN_ADC4_10V, and these are controlled by GPIO #10 through #13. For example, to switch AN_IN_1 to the 10.9V range, run the following command:

tshwctl -a 10 -w 3

Note that the result must now be multiplied by (10.9/2.5). Note also that the input impedance will now be around 2k ohms.

To switch to the 20mA current-loop mode, the appropriate enable must be set high. These are EN_CL_1 through EN_CL_4, and are controlled by GPIO #6 through #9. First select the 2.5V range as follows:

tshwctl -a 10 -w 1

And then set the EN_CL_1 enable high as follows:

tshwctl -a 6 -w 3


ADC Table
# 'raw' 2.5/10.9V Select 20mA Loop Select
AN_IN_1 in_voltage4_raw GPIO 10 GPIO 6
AN_IN_2 in_voltage5_raw GPIO 11 GPIO 7
AN_IN_3 in_voltage8_raw GPIO 12 GPIO 8
AN_IN_4 in_voltage9_raw GPIO 13 GPIO 9
Note: The four ADC inputs use the CPU ADC inputs 4,5,8, and 9, corresponding with the 'raw' entries in the above table.

7.2 Bluetooth

The WIFI option on the board also includes a bluetooth 4.0 LE module. To use bluetooth, it is necessary to first configure the WIFI interface (see Debian WiFi Client). Then, run the following commands:

# Install bluez if it is not already present
apt-get update
apt-get install bluez bluez-tools
 
hciattach /dev/ttymxc2 any 115200 noflow
hciconfig hci0 up
hcitool cmd 0x3F 0x0053 00 10 0E 00 01
stty -F /dev/ttymxc2 921600 crtscts

Now you may scan for available devices with:

hcitool scan

This will return a list of devices such as:

14:74:11:AB:12:34	SAMSUNG-SM-G900A

You may request more information from a detected device like so:

hcitool info 14:74:11:AB:12:34

This will produce lots of details about the device, for example:

Requesting information ...                                                      
        BD Address:  14:74:11:AB:12:34                                          
        OUI Company: Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd (4C-A5-6D)                     
        Device Name: SAMSUNG-SM-G900A                                           
        LMP Version: 4.1 (0x7) LMP Subversion: 0x610c                           
        Manufacturer: Broadcom Corporation (15)                                 
        Features page 0: 0xbf 0xfe 0xcf 0xfe 0xdb 0xff 0x7b 0x87        
        .
        .
        .

Bluez has support for many different profiles for HID, A2DP, and many more. Refer to the Bluez documentation for more information.

7.3 CAN

The i.MX6UL includes 2 CAN controllers which support the SocketCAN interface. Depending upon which options were specified when ordering, your board may make one or both of these available on the P3 & P5 connectors. Before proceeding with the examples, see the Kernel's CAN documentation here.

Note: The EN_CAN_XVR# line must be set low, by executing the following command: tshwctl -a 20 -w 1

This board comes preinstalled with can-utils which can be used to communicate over a CAN network without writing any code. The candump utility can be used to dump all data on the network

## First, set the baud rate and bring up the device:
ip link set can0 type can bitrate 250000
ip link set can0 up
 
## Dump data & errors:
candump can0 &
 
## Send the packet with:
#can_id = 0x7df
#data 0 = 0x3
#data 1 = 0x1
#data 2 = 0x0c
cansend can0 -i 0x7DF 0x3 0x1 0x0C
## Some versions of cansend use a different syntax.  If the above
## commands gives an error, try this instead:
#cansend can0 7DF#03010C

The above example packet is designed to work with the Ozen Elektronik myOByDic 1610 ECU simulator to read the RPM speed. In this case, the ECU simulator would return data from candump with:

 <0x7e8> [8] 04 41 0c 60 40 00 00 00 
 <0x7e9> [8] 04 41 0c 60 40 00 00 00 

In the output above, columns 6 and 7 are the current RPM value. This shows a simple way to prove out the communication before moving to another language.

The following example sends the same packet and parses the same response in C:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <net/if.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <net/if.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <linux/can.h>
#include <linux/can/raw.h>
 
int main(void)
{
	int s;
	int nbytes;
	struct sockaddr_can addr;
	struct can_frame frame;
	struct ifreq ifr;
	struct iovec iov;
	struct msghdr msg;
	char ctrlmsg[CMSG_SPACE(sizeof(struct timeval)) + CMSG_SPACE(sizeof(__u32))];
	char *ifname = "can0";
 
	if((s = socket(PF_CAN, SOCK_RAW, CAN_RAW)) < 0) {
		perror("Error while opening socket");
		return -1;
	}
 
	strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
	ioctl(s, SIOCGIFINDEX, &ifr);
	addr.can_family  = AF_CAN;
	addr.can_ifindex = ifr.ifr_ifindex;
 
	if(bind(s, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, sizeof(addr)) < 0) {
		perror("socket");
		return -2;
	}
 
 	/* For the ozen myOByDic 1610 this requests the RPM guage */
	frame.can_id  = 0x7df;
	frame.can_dlc = 3;
	frame.data[0] = 3;
	frame.data[1] = 1;
	frame.data[2] = 0x0c;
 
	nbytes = write(s, &frame, sizeof(struct can_frame));
	if(nbytes < 0) {
		perror("write");
		return -3;
	}
 
	iov.iov_base = &frame;
	msg.msg_name = &addr;
	msg.msg_iov = &iov;
	msg.msg_iovlen = 1;
	msg.msg_control = &ctrlmsg;
	iov.iov_len = sizeof(frame);
	msg.msg_namelen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_can);
	msg.msg_controllen = sizeof(ctrlmsg);  
	msg.msg_flags = 0;
 
	do {
		nbytes = recvmsg(s, &msg, 0);
		if (nbytes < 0) {
			perror("read");
			return -4;
		}
 
		if (nbytes < (int)sizeof(struct can_frame)) {
			fprintf(stderr, "read: incomplete CAN frame\n");
		}
	} while(nbytes == 0);
 
	if(frame.data[0] == 0x4)
		printf("RPM at %d of 255\n", frame.data[3]);
 
	return 0;
}

See the Kernel's CAN documentation here. Other languages have bindings to access CAN such as Python using C-types, Java using JNI.

7.4 COM Ports

The TS-7180 provides three standard RS-232 COM ports, and one RS-485 COM port. The latter has auto-transmit-enable. All of these ports are presented on the P5 connector. The RS-485 port has an on-board terminator that may be enabled by installing the "485" jumper.

UART TX RX
ttymxc1 P5-5 P5-6
ttymxc4 P5-2 P5-3
ttymxc6 P5-7 P5-8


UART 485+ 485-
ttymxc3 P5-13 P5-14
Note: The RS-232 transceiver chip on the board must be enabled before the COM ports can be used. This is done by running the command "tshwctl -a 21 -w 3"


If the second CAN option is not installed, a fourth RS-232 uart will be available on P5.

UART TX RX
ttymxc6 P5-10 P5-11


The HD1 header contains TTL-level TX/RX pins that may be used to connect to a CPU UART, with the caveat that to do so, one of the assigned UARTs must be reassigned to the header. The reassignment is done by writing to the register at address 308 in the FPGA. The table in the FPGA Registers section shows which UARTS may be used. By default, the HD1 TX/RX pins are not connected to any UART.

7.5 CPU

The TS-7180 board uses the i.MX6ul 528MHz or 696MHz CPU which is very similar to the i.MX6 Solo used on the TS-4900 using many of the same CPU peripherals IP cores, but using a Cortex-A7 instead to target lower power consumption.

Refer to NXP's documentation for more detailed information on the CPU core:

7.6 eMMC

This board includes a Micron eMMC module. Our off-the-shelf builds are 4GiB, but up to 64GiB are available for larger builds. The eMMC flash appears to Linux as an SD card at /dev/mmcblk1. Our default programming will include one partition programmed with our Debian image.

The eMMC module has a similar concern by default to SD cards in that they should not be powered down during a write/erase cycle. However, this eMMC module includes support for setting a fuse for a "Write Reliability" mode, and a "psuedo SLC" mode. With both of these enabled then any writes will be atomic to 512B. If a sector is being written during a power loss, a block is guaranteed to have either the old or new data. Even in cases where the wrong data is present on the next boot, fsck is able to deal with the older data being present in a 512B block. The downsides to setting these modes are that it will about halve the size of the eMMC module to 1.759Gib by default, and write speed will be slightly slower.

The mmc-utils package is used to enable these modes.

WARNING: If you are using a custom built TS-7180 with an eMMC sized larger than 4GB, contact us before using these commands. The SLC partition will be specified different on larger disks.


mmc write_reliability set -n 0 /dev/mmcblk1
mmc enh_area set -y 0 1847296 /dev/mmcblk1


WARNING: Setting either of those modes is permanent and using the wrong value it is possible to essentially brick eMMC which will not be covered by the warranty. Evaluation units with fuses set will not be accepted through returns.

After this is run, reboot the board. On all future boots the eMMC will be detected at the smaller size.

7.7 Ethernet Ports

The TS-7180 includes two 10/100 ethernet ports using the dual onboard CPU controllers and external Microchip/Micrel KSZ8081 PHYs. The MAC address is assigned from the Technologics pool using 00:d0:69:00:00:00, and the two MAC addresses will always be sequential. The ports are presented on RJ45 jacks on the board.

TS-7180-EthernetPorts.png

7.8 FPGA

7.8.1 FPGA Registers

The TS-7180 FPGA registers are accessed over I2C. The supplied 'tshwctl' utility may be used to access these registers; run 'tshwctl -h' to see how to use it.

The FPGA is available at I2C addresses 0x28-0x2f. First write the address which is 16-bits, followed by the data which is 8-bits.

The tables below list all the registers and their functions.

FPGA Registers
Address Bits Description
0-43 7:3 Reserved (Write 0)
2 GPIOn Input Data
17 GPIOn Output Data
0 GPIOn Output Enable
307 7:3 Reserved (Write 0)
2:0 Cell-modem uart selector
Value Function
0 Leave disconnected
1 Use UART3 (ttymxc2)
2 Use UART4 (ttymxc3)
3 Use UART6 (ttymxc5)
4 Use UART7 (ttymxc6)
5 Use UART8 (ttymxc7)
308 7:3 Reserved (Write 0)
2:0 HD1 uart selector
Value Function
0 Leave disconnected
1 Use UART3 (ttymxc2)
2 Use UART4 (ttymxc3)
3 Use UART6 (ttymxc5)
4 Use UART7 (ttymxc6)
5 Use UART8 (ttymxc7)
309 0 PWM control[1]
  1. Write 1 to this address to route the cpu PWM to DIO_1

In the above table the GPIO uses are listed in the table below.

FPGA GPIO
IO Number Pad Direction
0 WIFI_RESET# OUT
1 EN_WIFI_PWR OUT
2 EN_YEL_LED# OUT
3 EN_GREEN_LED# OUT
4 EN_RED_LED# OUT
5 EN_BLUE_LED# OUT
6 EN_CL_1 OUT
7 EN_CL_2 OUT
8 EN_CL_3 OUT
9 EN_CL_4 OUT
10 EN_ADC1_10V OUT
11 EN_ADC2_10V OUT
12 EN_ADC3_10V OUT
13 EN_ADC4_10V OUT
14 EN_SD_POWER OUT
15 EN_USB_HOST_5V OUT
16 EN_OFF_BD_5V OUT
17 EN_CELL_MODEM_PWR OUT
18 EN_NIMBEL_3.3V OUT
19 EN_GPS_PWR# OUT
20 EN_CAN_XVR# OUT
21 EN_232_XVR OUT
22 EN_LS_OUT_1 OUT
23 EN_LS_OUT_2 OUT
24 EN_LS_OUT_3 OUT
25 EN_LS_OUT_4 OUT
26 EN_LS_OUT_5 OUT
27 EN_LS_OUT_6 OUT
28 EN_LS_OUT_7 OUT
29 Unused n/a
30 Unused n/a
31 Unused n/a
32 DIG_IN_1 IN
33 DIG_IN_2 IN
34 DIG_IN_3 IN
35 DIG_IN_4 IN
36 SD_BOOT_JMP# IN
37 DIO_IN_1 IN
38 DIO_IN_2 IN
39 DIO_IN_3 IN
40 DIO_IN_4 IN
41 DIO_IN_5 IN
42 DIO_IN_6 IN
43 DIO_IN_7 IN



7.9 FRAM

The TS-7180 has 4Kbit ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) organized as 512B. It is accessible via the SPI bus.

The FRAM may be accessed from userspace. It will appear as an EEPROM at: /sys/class/spi_master/spi2/spi2.2/eeprom

The datasheet is available from Cypress Semiconductors' website.

7.10 GPIO

The TS-7180 provides seven IO ports that can sink up to 500mA, or withstand up to 30V at the input. These are available on the P3 connector. DIO_1 through DIO_7 appear as GPIO #37 through #43 (when used as inputs), and as GPIO #22 through #28 (when used as outputs). For example, to read the state of DIO_1, enter the following command:

tshwctl -a 37 -r

Bit #2 will reflect the state of the pin.

To drive DIO_1 low, enter the following command:

tshwctl -a 22 -w 3
DIO
DIO # INPUT GPIO # OUTPUT GPIO #
DIO_1 37 22
DIO_2 38 23
DIO_3 39 24
DIO_4 40 25
DIO_5 41 26
DIO_6 42 27
DIO_7 43 28

Additionally, there are four input-only pins, DIG_IN_1 through DIG_IN_4, available on P3 connector. To read from these pins, run:

tshwctl -a N -r

...where N is 32 through 35.

DIG_IN
DIG_IN # INPUT GPIO #
DIG_IN_1 32
DIG_IN_2 33
DIG_IN_3 34
DIG_IN_4 35

7.11 GPS

The TS-7180 has an optional on-board Telit SL869 GPS receiver. An SMA female connector is provided for the connection of an antenna.

TS-7180-GPS-Antenna.png

Before it can be used, power to the GPS receiver must be enabled by setting GPIO #19 low, as shown below:

tshwctl -a 19 -r -w 1

The GPS receiver may then be accessed via the /dev/ttymxc7 uart.

7.12 IMU

The TS-7180 has an optional Invensense MPU-9250 motion-tracking device. This device provides:

  • 3-axis Gyroscope
  • 3-axis Accelerometer
  • 3-axis Magnetometer
  • Temperature sensor

The MPU-9250 is connected to the CPU via I2C. The device is actually two chips in one: The first contains the gyroscope, accelerometer, and temperature sensor. The second contains the magnetometer. Because there are two chips, there are two I2C chip addresses: 0x69, and 0x0C.

User interface to the device is done through the sys filesystem.

The gyroscope, accelerometer, and temperature readings are available at: /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1

The gyroscope measures angular velocity in three axes. The raw values are available at:

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_anglvel_x_raw

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_anglvel_y_raw

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_anglvel_z_raw


The accelerometer measures acceleration along three axes. The raw values are available at:

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_accel_x_raw

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_accel_y_raw

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_accel_z_raw


The magnetometer readings are available at: /sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device2

The magnetometer measures magnetic field strength in three axes. The raw values are available at:

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_magn_x_raw

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_magn_y_raw

/sys/bus/iio/devices/iio:device1/in_magn_z_raw


Technologic Systems has provided a simple program for accessing all of the available parameters.

test-accel.c

ansi.h (required by the above)

7.13 Interrupts

TS-7180 interrupts

7.14 Jumpers

The TS-7180 has a set of jumpers located near the SuperCaps on the edge of the SBC.


20170224 140329.jpg

These jumpers control a number of aspects of the TS-7180's behavior. The jumpers are labeled on the silkscreen rather than numbered:

Label Description
NO Charge When jumper is set, disable charging of the SuperCaps. Beneficial for early development and testing.
SD Boot When jumper is set, boot kernel and Debian from the SD card. Otherwise boot kernel and Debian from eMMC. This jumper influences U-Boot behavior.
U Boot When jumper is set, pause booting in U-Boot and drop to a U-Boot shell. Otherwise boot straight to Debian.
CAN When jumper is set, adds a 120 ohm termination resistor across CAN1 H and L pins. (Note: the CAN2 interface always has a 120 ohm termination)
485 When jumper is set, adds a 120 ohm termination resistor across RS-485 + and - pins.

7.15 LEDs

There are four LEDS on the TS-7180 that may be controlled by the user, through the sysfs interface. These are colored yellow, green, red, and blue.

To turn an LED on, write a 1 to 'brightness'. To turn it off again, write a 0.

# Example:  Turn on the Blue LED...
echo 1 > /sys/class/leds/blue-led/brightness
 
# Turn it off again...
echo 0 > /sys/class/leds/blue-led/brightness

7.16 MicroSD Card Interface

The i.MX6ul SDHCI driver supports MicroSD (0-2GB), MicroSDHC (4-32GB), and MicroSDXC(64GB-2TB). The cards available on our website on average support up to 16MB/s read, and 22MB/s write using this interface. Sandisk Extreme cards with UHS support have shown 58MB/s Read and 59MB/s write. The linux driver provides access to this socket at /dev/mmcblk0 as a standard Linux block device.

This graph shows our SD write endurance test for 40 TS-7553 boards running a doublestore stress test on 4GB Sandisk MicroSD cards. A failure is marked on the graph for a card once a single bit of corruption is found.

Seethe IMX6ul reference manual for more information on this controller.

We have performed compatibility testing on the Sandisk MicroSD cards we provide, and we do not suggest switching brands/models without your own qualification testing. Though SD cards in theory will all follow the standard and just work, in practice cards vary significantly and can fail in subtle ways. We do not recommend ATP or Transcend MicroSD cards specifically due to known corruption issues that can occur after many GB of written data.

Our testing has shown that on average microSD cards will last between 6-12TB of written data before showing a single bit of corruption. This is enough for most applications to write for years and not see any issues, but for more reliable consider the eMMC which is expected to last over 100TB of writes. Higher end SD cards can also extend this, but industrial grade SD cards typically carry a cost much higher than the eMMC.

MicroSD cards should not be powered down during a write/erase cycle or you will eventually experience disk corruption. It is not always possible for fsck to recover from the types of failures that will be seen with SD power loss. The system should be designed to avoid power loss to SD cards, or the eMMC module should be used for storage instead which can be configured to be resilient to power loss.

7.17 PWM

WARNING: This requires FPGA Rev 11 or later

The TS-7180 provides a single PWM channel, available on DIO_1 (pin #1 of P3-A). Because DIO_1 is a general-purpose IO, to use it as a PWM output it is first necessary to enable such usage by writing to address 309 in the FPGA, as follows:

tshwctl -a 309 -w 1

PWM devices are available though the sysfs filesystem, they will appear at "/sys/class/pwm/pwmchipX/" where X is the PWM channel number. Due to the layout of the PWM controller, each PWM channel is on a separate chip. Normally a single PWM chip can support multiple PWM devices through linux, however in this case each chip only has a single device; pwm0. This device is not enabled by default and must be turned on manually: can be used to control the PWM.

# Each PWM controller has "1" PWM device which will be PWM channel 0
echo 0 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchipX/export

This will create a pwm0/ directory under each pwmchipX/ directory which will contain the following relevant files.:

period Total period, inactive and active time in the PWM cycle specified in nanoseconds.
duty_cycle Active time of the PWM signal specified in nanoseconds. Must be less than the period.
enable Write 1 to enable, 0 to disable

As an example, this will set a 50khz signal with 50 percent duty cycle on PWM channel 4:

# 20us is the period for 50khz
echo 20000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip4/pwm0/period
echo 10000 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip4/pwm0/duty_cycle
echo 1 > /sys/class/pwm/pwmchip4/pwm0/enable


Note: The DIO pins on the TS-7180 have a 1.5k pull-up, which means that the rise-time on these outputs is relatively slow. Therefore, you might need to add an off-board pull-up to get a faster rise-time.

7.18 Quadrature & Edge-Counters

Quadrature Counters

The TS-7180 provides three independent quadrature counters. The associated inputs are shown in the table below.

Quadrature
Quad # INPUTS
Quad0 DIG_IN_1 + DIG_IN_2
Quad1 DIG_IN_3 + DIG_IN_4
Quad2 DIO_6_IN + DIO_7_IN


Each of the quadrature counters (which are in the FPGA) is 16-bits wide, and are accessed via i2c. The addresses are shown below.


Quad # MSB LSB MSB Alias
Quad0 96 97 98
Quad1 99 100 101
Quad2 102 103 104


For example, to read the MSB for Quad1:

tshwctl -r -a 99


The MSB aliases are used to detect 16-bit rollover. If the first reading of the MSB is not equal to the second, overflow/underflow was detected during the read.


Edge-Counters, Period-counters


For each input pin, there is an edge-counter, and a period-counter. The former counts the positive edges on an input pin, while the latter may be used to measure the elapsed time between N positive-edges.

Edge-counters are 16-bits wide, and their addresses are shown in the table below.

Edge Counters
Input MSB LSB MSB Alias
DIG_IN_1 105 106 107
DIG_IN_2 108 109 110
DIG_IN_3 111 112 113
DIG_IN_4 114 115 116
DIO_6_IN 117 118 119
DIO_7_IN 120 121 122


Period counters are 32-bits wide, and their addresses are shown in the table below.

Period Counters
Input Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 Byte 0
DIG_IN_1 131 132 133 134
DIG_IN_2 135 136 137 138
DIG_IN_3 139 140 141 142
DIG_IN_4 143 144 145 146
DIO_6_IN 147 148 149 150
DIO_7_IN 151 152 153 154

To use the period counters, it is first necessary to write N (for the number of edges to count) to address 155. This may be done like so:

tshwctl -a 155 -w N

As soon as address 155 is written, counting begins, clocked at 63MHz. After N edges have been detected, the period registers may be read. The frequency of the input may be calculated from the period, as shown here:

frequency = (N * 63000000) / period

7.19 RTC

The TS-7180 includes an ST M41T00S low-power serial real-time clock (RTC) with battery-backup. This is /dev/rtc0 in our images, and is accessed using the standard hwclock command.

7.20 SPI

The i.MX6UL CPU has a native SPI peripheral that is used in a number of places on the TS-7180. Additionally, kernel spidev support is added to allow SPI access from userspace. User SPI can be used fora generic SPI connection on HD1, as well as user accessible FRAM.

The ECSPI peripheral in the i.MX6UL CPU is highly flexible and can even support SPI slave mode. For more information on the peripheral itself, please see the CPU reference manual.


The SPI peripheral is accessible as /dev/spidev2.x, where x is one of the three chip select lines. Additional chip select lines can be implemented if needed by adding them to the kernel device-tree by using GPIO.

CS Device
0 Reserved for FPGA
1 HD1
2 FRAM

See the kernel spidev documentation for more information on interfacing with the SPI peripherals.

7.21 SuperCaps

Note: This section is incomplete at this time.

The TS-7180 has an option to add two 2.7 V 10 F supercapacitors. These two SuperCaps can provide up to 20 seconds of power hold time automatically if the external power input is removed. The Power Fail input signal (see the DIO Section) can be used to determine if the exterior power has been removed or fallen below a valid input level. Using this signal, a proper shutdown can be issued to ensure that all data is flushed from cache to disk, and all disks are unmounted properly.

The SuperCaps charge and discharge is managed transparently by the supervisory microcontroller. A jumper is provided to disable the charging and use of the SuperCaps. This mode is very useful for development to allow for proper power-off conditions without having to wait for the SuperCaps to discharge. The supervisory microcontroller will also not allow the TS-7180 to boot if power input is invalid. If the system shuts-down safely due to a power failure, it will remain in a powered off state until external power is re-applied, or the SuperCaps discharge below the sustainable threshold.

By default, a script is started with systemd to monitor the Power Fail pin, and present all logged in users with a message saying that the power has failed and a graceful shutdown is taking place if the power input has failed. This script is located at /usr/local/bin/tssilomon

Additionally, U-Boot can delay booting until the SuperCaps are charged to a certain percentage, and optionally print the current percentage once per second. These are controlled with the environment variables "chrg_pct" and "chrg_verb" By setting chrg_pct to anything other than 0 (0 means do not wait, which is the default behavior), booting will be delayed until that percentage is reached. Setting chrg_verb to 1 will enable the verbose printing of the current percentage every second. Note that the SuperCaps may be at "0%" for a large period of time, this is due to the charge level being below a voltage that can sustain the TS-7180. See the U-Boot section for information on setting environment variables.

A recommended value is 100%. This value was chosen because it can ensure the system is powered long enough to boot up and safely shut down (and provide an additional 8 s of power) if power is immediately cut once booting has started. Please note that this only applies to the default stock image, any further changes to the TS-7180 hardware or software, such as connecting powered devices like USB or adding additional applications may cause the recommended value to not sustain the TS-7180 until a safe shutdown is completed. The time it takes to reach 100% charge will vary depending on the current charge of the SuperCaps. On average, it will take about 20 seconds to charge the SuperCaps to 100%; this is assuming the SuperCaps have very recently fallen below the threshold voltage to sustain the TS-7180.

7.22 TWI

The i.MX6 supports standard I2C at 100khz, or using fast mode for 400khz operation. The CPU has 2 I2C buses used on the TS-7180.

I2C 1 is internal to the TS-7180 and connects to the onboard Silabs supervisory microcontroller at 100khz; and to the onboard ST M41T00S real-time clock (RTC).

/dev/i2c-0
Address Device
0x4a #Silabs
0x68 #RTC

The second I2C bus is connected to the onboard FPGA. This bus also runs at 400khz by default.

/dev/i2c-2
Address Device
0x28-0x2f #FPGA
Note: It is also possible to request the kernel to bitbang additional I2C buses as needed. See an example here.

The kernel makes the I2C available at /dev/i2c-#. You can use the i2c-tools (i2cdetect, i2cget, i2cset), or you can write your own client.

7.23 USB

The TS-7180 has both a Host connector and a Device connector.

TS-7180-USB-Connectors.png

7.23.1 USB Host

The TS-7180 provides a standard USB 2.0 host supporting 480Mb/s. Typically this is interfaced with by using standard Linux drivers, but low level USB communication is possible using libusb.

7.23.2 USB DEVICE

The USB type B device port is connected to the onboard Silabs for USB to serial console.

7.24 Watchdog

The kernel provides an interface to the watchdog driver at /dev/watchdog. Refer to the kernel documentation for more information:

7.25 WIFI

The TS-7180 uses an Atmel ATWILC3000-MR110CA IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Link Controller Module With Integrated Bluetooth® 4.0. Linux provides support for this module using the wilc3000 driver.

Summary features:

  • IEEE 802.11 b/g/n RF/PHY/MAC SOC
  • IEEE 802.11 b/g/n (1x1) for up to 72 Mbps PHY rate
  • Single spatial stream in 2.4GHz ISM band
  • Integrated PA and T/R Switch Integrated Chip Antenna
  • Superior Sensitivity and Range via advanced PHY signal processing
  • Advanced Equalization and Channel Estimation
  • Advanced Carrier and Timing Synchronization
  • Wi-Fi Direct and Soft-AP support
  • Supports IEEE 802.11 WEP, WPA, and WPA2 Security
  • Supports China WAPI security
  • Operating temperature range of -40°C to +85°C


8 Physical Interfaces

8.1 Internal Interfaces

8.2 External Interfaces

8.2.1 Power Connector

The power connector, CN7, is shown in the photograph below. This accepts an 8-28 VDC input.

DSC02589.JPG

8.2.2 Terminal Blocks

The TS-7180 includes four removable terminal blocks (OSTTJ0811030) for UARTs, CAN, ADC, and other general purpose IO.

TS-7180 Terminal Blocks-8.png


P5-A
Pin # Description
1 Ground
2 RS-232_STC_TXD (/dev/ttymxc4)
3 RS-232_STC_RXD (/dev/ttymxc4)
4 Ground
5 RS-232_STC_TXD (/dev/ttymxc1)
6 RS-232_STC_RXD (/dev/ttymxc1)
7 RS-232_STC_TXD (/dev/ttymxc6)
8 RS-232_STC_RXD (/dev/ttymxc6)
P5-B
Pin # Description
1 Ground
2 STC_CAN_2_H (can2 interface)[1]
3 STC_CAN_2_L (can1 interface)[2]
4 Ground
5 STC_485+ (/dev/ttymxc3)
6 STC_485- (/dev/ttymxc3)
7 Ground
8 WAKE-UP
  1. RS-232_STC_TXD (/dev/ttymxc5) depending on option
  2. RS-232_STC_RXD (/dev/ttymxc5) depending on option


TS-7180 Terminal Blocks-12.png


P3-A
Pin # Description
1 DIO 1
2 DIO 2
3 DIO 3
4 DIO 4
5 DIO 5
6 DIO 6
7 DIO 7
8 DIG IN 1
9 DIG IN 2
10 Ground
11 Ground
12 Ground
P3-B
Pin # Description
1 STC_CAN_1_H (can1 interface)
2 STC_CAN_1_L (can1 interface)
3 AN IN 1 (ADC)
4 AN IN 2 (ADC)
5 AN IN 3 (ADC)
6 AN IN 4 (ADC)
7 DIG IN 3
8 DIG IN 4
9 OFF-BD 5V
10 Ground
11 Ground
12 Ground

8.2.3 Modem Socket

The TS-7180 has provision for the mounting of a Multitech or NimbelLink modem.

To be completed.

The power to the modem (if installed) must be enabled by writing a 1 to the EN_CELL_MODEM_PWR bit in the FPGA GPIO registers.

8.2.4 Daughter Card Interface

The TS-7180 Daughter Card Interface (HD1) may be used to connect a variety of off-board peripherals. The interface includes pins for the following:

  • I2C
  • SPI
  • USB OTG
  • PoE
  • UART (TTL levels)

The table below shows the pinout of the header.

Pin # Function
1 PWR+
2 POE_78
3 GND
4 POE_45
5 GND
6 POE_TX
7 DIO
8 POE_RX
9 I2C_DAT
10 UART_RXD
11 USB-
12 UART_TXD
13 USB+
14 I2C_CLK
15 +5V
16 +5V
17 SPI_MISO
18 SPI_MOSI
19 3.3V
20 SPI_CLK
Note: The default device-tree has an entry for the SPI interface, which will appear in linux as "/dev/spidev2.1".

The UART appears as "/dev/ttymxc7" (when enabled in the FPGA Syscon registers).

9 Specifications

9.1 Power Consumption

All tests are performed at 12V, with Ethernet, USB, supercaps, SD, disconnected or disabled unless otherwise specified.

TS-7180-SRW9I
Test Average Max
Idle 49mA/0.59W 148mA/1.78W
Idle with one Ethernet connected 76mA/0.91W 139mA/1.67W
Idle with both Ethernets connected 105mA/1.20W 156mA/1.87W
Idle CPU booting with Supercaps Enabled 51.1mA/0.61W[1] 531mA/6.37W
Busy CPU (openssl speed) 113mA/1.36W 156mA/1.87W
Sleep Mode 1.8mA/22mW 58mA/70mW
  1. Draws near peak and approaches typical power consumption over a minute as caps charge.

10 Revisions and Changes

10.1 TS-7180 PCB Revisions

TS-7180 PCB Changelog

10.2 U-Boot Revisions

Version Description of changes
U-Boot 2016.03-14615-g4047d08843 (Dec 07 2018 - 14:16:47 -0800)
  • Engineering Sample Program release.

10.3 FPGA Revisions

Version Description of changes
0x0D: Revision 13. Engineering Sampling release version.

10.4 Software Images

10.4.1 Kernel Changelog

Version Description of changes
Linux ts-imx6ul 4.1.15-gf62b81dbcf54 #23 SMP PREEMPT Fri Dec 7 14:53:12 PST 2018 armv7l
  • Engineering Sample Program release.

11 Product Notes

11.1 FCC Advisory

This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used properly (that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions), may cause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the owner will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

If this equipment does cause interference, which can be determined by turning the unit on and off, the user is encouraged to try the following measures to correct the interference:

Reorient the receiving antenna. Relocate the unit with respect to the receiver. Plug the unit into a different outlet so that the unit and receiver are on different branch circuits. Ensure that mounting screws and connector attachment screws are tightly secured. Ensure that good quality, shielded, and grounded cables are used for all data communications. If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions. The following booklets prepared by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) may also prove helpful:

How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems (Stock No. 004-000-000345-4) Interface Handbook (Stock No. 004-000-004505-7) These booklets may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

11.2 Limited Warranty

Technologic Systems warrants this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from date of purchase. During this warranty period Technologic Systems will repair or replace the defective unit in accordance with the following process:

A copy of the original invoice must be included when returning the defective unit to Technologic Systems, Inc. This limited warranty does not cover damages resulting from lightning or other power surges, misuse, abuse, abnormal conditions of operation, or attempts to alter or modify the function of the product.

This warranty is limited to the repair or replacement of the defective unit. In no event shall Technologic Systems be liable or responsible for any loss or damages, including but not limited to any lost profits, incidental or consequential damages, loss of business, or anticipatory profits arising from the use or inability to use this product.

Repairs made after the expiration of the warranty period are subject to a repair charge and the cost of return shipping. Please, contact Technologic Systems to arrange for any repair service and to obtain repair charge information.