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TS-8820 source directory
Dimensions (in enclosure)
6.35 inches (tall) by 7.714 inches (wide including DB9) by 1.14 inches (deep)


1 Overview

The TS-8820-BOX is a rugged, feature-rich TS-SOCKET based baseboard and Macrocontroller combination for industrial applications. The TS-8820-BOX is powered by the TS-4100, TS-4700, TS-4710, TS-4720 or TS-4800 Computer-on-Module devices. The TS-8820-BOX enclosure exposes all of the available I/O on rugged screw terminals while protecting the CoM and other sensitive electronics. The TS-8820-BOX a tough, durable, flexible, powerful, and affordable industrial process control platform.

1.1 TS-4100

See the TS-4100 page for functionality regarding the CPU, FPGA, and OS.

NXP i.MX6ul 528MHz Cortex-A7 (ARMv7)

2 Getting Started

  • Connect the console serial terminal cable
  • Connect the Ethernet cable if applicable.
  • Connect the GND and POWER screw terminals to a voltage source from 10 V to 30 V DC.
    • Alternatively, the unit can be powered via IEEE 802.3af PoE, see the power supply section for more information on powering the unit
  • Apply power
  • Monitor the device bootup using a terminal emulator connected to the serial console port to verify that the board is operating properly

See the TS-4100 page for more details on dealing with the functionality of the CoM.

2.1 TS-8820-4100 MUXBUS Interface

The TS-4100 uses the MUXBUS protocol to read and write the TS-8820 FPGA registers. The TS-4100 FPGA does not natively support the MUXBUS protocol in any way, however all of the relevant connection pins are accessible to the TS-4100 FPGA as GPIO pins. In order to facilitate the communication, the TS-4100 ZPU is loaded with a program that is designed to accept data from the CPU and perform MUXBUS bus cycles by directly manipulating the FPGA GPIO pins.

2.2 Loading the MUXBUS Application

The utility 'tszpuctl' is used to compile applications, load them in to the ZPU, perform ZPU reset, dump ZPU RAM, and get basic information about the ZPU itself. The sources for 'tszpuctl' as well as the "zpu_muxbus" application are available from the ts4100-utils github repository.

The ZPU can be loaded with the MUXBUS application with the following commands:

git clone
tszpuctl -l ts4100-utils/src/zpu/zpu_muxbus.c

Note that the ZPU must be re-loaded with this application each time the unit is booted up. The program is loaded directly in to ZPU RAM and executed from there. It is also possible to compile the "zpu_muxbus.c" file to a .bin file and pass that to 'tszpuctl' for faster loading.

2.3 Using the ts8820ctl Application

With the ZPU loaded, it is now ready to accept commands to read and write TS-8820 FPGA registers. Many of the TS-8820 features listed below show an example of using "ts8820ctl" to interact with I/O or other peripherals. The 'ts8820ctl' application is included in the stock TS-4100 image and requires the ZPU be loaded with the "zpu_muxbus" application first. If the ZPU is not loaded, 'ts8820ctl' will return with an error indicating that it was unable to communicate with the ZPU.

2.4 Custom Applications

The 'ts8820ctl' application is meant as a demo application. While it can be used on its own it may be necessary to integrate its features in to a larger application. This is the reason that 'ts8820ctl' is broken down in to multiple layers.

The top level "src/ts8820ctl.c" file in the ts4100-utils github repository is the commandline interface. From there it makes a number of calls to functions provided by "src/ts8820.c". These functions do the heavy lifting of formatting data and making calls to the ZPU via a custom FIFO interface. The functions in "ts8820.c" can be called from other applications to directly manipulate the TS-8820 peripherals.

3 Features

3.1 FPGA

The TS-8820 is powered by a Lattice XP2 FPGA with 5000 LUTs. Many of the features of the TS-8820 are driven by logic in this FPGA. The CoM attached to the TS-8820 will likely also have an FPGA, but all mentions of an FPGA in this document reference the FPGA on the TS-8820 itself.

The CoM communicates with the TS-8820 FPGA using the MUXBUS, a simple address/data bus defined by Technologic Systems. Application developers do not need to understand the hardware layers involved to read/write the TS-8820 register map. See the demo application source, ts8820ctl.c, for more information on the software interface for the TS-8820.

For applications that require custom logic or interfaces please contact us regarding FPGA customization.

3.2 Battery Socket

The coin cell battery is not required for normal TS-8820 operation. The battery provides backup power for the battery backed SRAM and for the real time clock located on the CoM. Without a battery, however, a loss of power will result in a loss of RTC time in the CoM and SRAM data on the TS-8820.

3.3 Digital Outputs

The TS-8820 offers 6 digital outputs. Four of these outputs are isolated and act as a solid state relay capable of switching up to 40 VDC at 1 A continuous draw. The other two outputs are non-isolated, able to sink up to 1 A continuous current, and are 40 V tolerant.

The outputs can be controlled directly through the ts8820ctl application. See ts8820ctl.c and ts8820.c for examples of how this writes to the TS-8820 registers.

With the ts8820ctl application, all 6 outputs are manipulated in a single command. That is, a 6 bit value is passed as an argument, and that value is directly set to the outputs. For example, to set OUT5:

ts8820ctl --setdio=0x10

When an output is activated its associated LED indicator is enabled to provide visual feedback.

3.3.1 Isolated Outputs

Digital outputs OUT1-OUT4 are isolated, each having their own positive and negative terminal. Each isolated output acts as a solid state relay allowing current to flow through the contacts only when it is activated. The isolated outputs are able to switch up to 40 VDC at 1 A continuous current draw. Isolated output terminals are made available on the P7 terminal block.

3.3.2 Non-Isolated Outputs

Digital outputs 5 and 6 are non-isolated, they rely on the main TS-8820 ground and only have a single contact. Each non-isolated output is a low side switch capable of sinking current when activated. The non-isolated outputs are capable of sinking 1 A continuous current with 40 V input voltage. Non-isolated input terminals appear on the P2 terminal block.

3.3.3 PWM

The TS-8820 has 6 PWM outputs. PWM channels 1 to 6 feed digital outputs 1 to 6 respectively when the PWM override bit is set for a given output.

For all 8 PWM channels, the PWM frequency is approximately (12207/(2^prescalar)) Hz, where the prescalar value is 3 bits wide. That is, a prescalar value of 0 through 7. The PWM duty cycle has 12 bits of resolution. If bit 12 of a PWM register is set, then the PWM output for that channel will be 100% high. Otherwise, the duty cycle setting is divided by 4096 to give the effective duty cycle.

To give OUT5 a ~3 kHZ 50% duty cycle PWM output using ts8820ctl, the following arguments would be used:

# --prescalar= sets the PWM frequency to (12207/(2^VALUE))Hz.
# --mvolts= sets the PWM duty cycle percentage from a decimal scale of 0-10000
# --pwm= PWM channel to enable and modify
ts8820ctl --pwm=5 --mvolts=5000 --prescalar=2

3.4 Digital Inputs

The TS-8820 offers 14 digital input pins. There are 8 isolated inputs that are 30 V tolerant. The 6 non-isolated inputs are 40 V tolerant.

The inputs can be polled directly through the ts8820ctl application. See ts8820ctl.c and ts8820.c for examples of how this reads from the TS-8820 registers.

With the ts8820ctl application, all 14 inputs can be read with a single command. A 14-bit value is returned in hex in a format that can be parsed easily by scripting languages. For example, the following output indicates that IN1 and IN3 are active:

ts8820ctl --getdio

When an input is activated its associated LED indicator is enabled to provide visual feedback.

3.4.1 Isolated Inputs

Digital inputs 1 though 8 are isolated, each having their own positive and negative terminal. In order to activate an input, a potential of at least 3 V and not more than 30 V must be generated across these terminals. Isolated input terminals are located on P1 and P7 terminal blocks.

3.4.2 Buffered Inputs

Digital inputs 9 through 14 are non-isolated, buffered, active low inputs. Each pin has a nominal threshold of 2.5 V, a 3.24 Kohm pull-up to 5V, and are 40 V tolerant. Non-isolated inputs are located on the P2 terminal block.

3.4.3 Pulse Counter

Note: This section is incomplete at this time

3.5 ADC Channels

The TS-8820 offers 16 channels of single ended bi-polar ADC inputs. These ADC inputs are provided by two separate 8 channel ADC devices. Each ADC controller supports a selectable voltage (via GPIO from the CoM, see below) ranges of -5 V to +5 V as well as -10 V to +10 V. This means that each set of 8 channels can be set to different ranges. Each set of 8 channels are sampled simultaneously inside the ADC device.

All 16 ADC inputs are located on the P3, P4, and P5 terminal blocks. While each ADC has a pair of inputs, they are single ended ADC channels; all negative input terminals connect to the TS-8820 common ground.

Additionally, the ADC devices support a number of oversampling options, also controlled via GPIO from the CoM. Enabling oversampling has the effect of adding a digital filter function after the ADC. Increasing the oversampling ratio will decrease the effective sampling rate of the ADC but will increase the signal to noise ratio of each channel. The oversampling rate is shared between both ADC devices, that is, the rate can not be independently set per-device.

Setting the ADC voltage range:

ADC chan. 1 - 8
DIO Val Range
CN2_56 1 -10 V to +10 V
CN2_56 0 -5 V to +5 V
ADC chan. 9 - 16
DIO Val Range
CN2_58 1 -10 V to +10 V
CN2_58 0 -5 V to +5 V

Setting the oversampling rate:

CN2_64 CN2_62 CN2_60 OS Rate
0 0 0 N/A
0 0 1 2
0 1 0 4
0 1 1 8
1 0 0 16
1 0 1 32
1 1 0 64
1 1 1 Invalid
Note: CoM GPIO pins will usually start as inputs with pull up resistors. Therefore the default range will likely be -10 V to +10 V with an invalid oversampling rate. It is advised to set up these pins before acquiring ADC samples.

3.5.1 Current Loops (4-20 mA measurement)

All 16 ADC channels independently support 4-20 mA current loop measurements. This is achieved by setting a pin jumper for the respective channel on the current loop enable pin header. Setting a jumper will electrically enable a 200 Ω 0.5% resistor from the ADC channel to ground allowing for a constant current measurement.

3.5.2 Thermistor

The TS-8820 supports up to 8 thermistors on channels 1 though 8. Support for a thermistor is enabled via software, the ADC pullup bit of TS-8820 FPGA register 0x2. Setting bit 8 enables a pull up on ADC channels 1 and 2, setting bit 9 enables a pull up on ADC channels 3 and 4, and setting bit 10 enables a pull up on channels 5 through 8. When enabled, each channel will get a separate 6.04 kΩ resistor to +12.5 V allowing the use of a thermistor probe.

3.5.3 ADC Usage

The 'ts8820ctl' application can be used to quickly sample the ADCs. This will send simultaneous sampling commands to each of the two ADC devices which will then sample all 16 channels in total the amount of times specified. See the "ts8820ctl.c" and "ts8820.c" files for examples on how this operation takes place.

For example, to sample all of the channels 5 times, the following command would be used:

ts8820ctl --sample=5
Collected 80 samples total.
Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 6 Ch 7 Ch 8 Ch 9 Ch10 Ch11 Ch12 Ch13 Ch14 Ch15 Ch16 
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 
-7626 2195 2193 2199 2192 2195 2195 2192 2189 2189 2193 2190 2189 2192 2191 2191 
-7626 2194 2192 2198 2191 2194 2194 2191 2188 2189 2192 2189 2188 2191 2189 2190 
-7626 2193 2191 2197 2190 2193 2193 2190 2187 2188 2191 2188 2186 2190 2189 2189 
-7626 2189 2188 2193 2186 2189 2190 2186 2183 2184 2187 2184 2183 2186 2185 2185 
-7626 2189 2187 2192 2186 2188 2189 2186 2183 2183 2187 2184 2182 2185 2184 2185

Above, channel 1 has a -7.62 V voltage source attached to it, all other channels are left unconnected. The range is set at -10 V to +10 V, and the oversampling rate is set to 64.

Note that on the TS-4100, the range defaults to -5 V to +5 V and oversampling is in the "invalid" state due to how the GPIO pins are set up in the CPU.

Before the above measurement was taken, the following commands were run on the TS-4100 in order to set the correct range and oversampling rate:

echo 120 > /sys/class/gpio/export 
echo 121 > /sys/class/gpio/export 
echo 122 > /sys/class/gpio/export 
echo low > /sys/class/gpio/gpio120/direction 
echo high > /sys/class/gpio/gpio121/direction 
echo high > /sys/class/gpio/gpio122/direction
echo 119 > /sys/class/gpio/export 
echo 118 > /sys/class/gpio/export 
echo high > /sys/class/gpio/gpio118/direction 
echo high > /sys/class/gpio/gpio119/direction

These GPIO states must be set each time the unit is powered up.

3.6 DAC Channels

The TS-8820 has 4 channels of 0 to +10 V DAC outputs. Each DAC channel has a positive and negative terminal connection. The negative side of the terminals are connected to the common ground of the TS-8820 and are non-isolated. The DAC terminals are on the P3 and P9 terminal blocks.

The DAC channels each have 12 bits of resolution that correspond to 0 to +10 V output. The upper bit (bit 15) of each register is a control bit that is used to synchronize the output of all 4 DAC channels. This means that all four registers can be updated without modifying the actual DAC output. Setting the control bit of any DAC channel register will case an update of the DAC output of all four channels. If the DAC register has not been modified, the update will still be sent but the actual output will remain the same. Reading this control bit will indicate if the synchronization is complete. Writing the DAC registers while the control bit is still asserted, indicating busy, will result in undefined behavior. The update process from setting the control bit to its completion takes approximately 3 microseconds.

When 0 is written to the control bit, the DAC values are updated internally in the FPGA but not transferred to the DAC. Thus any set of channels can be updated simultaneously by only writing a one on the final write.

The DAC channels can be controlled through 'ts8820ctl'. Note that the "--setdac" option to 'ts8820ctl' will always set the control bit of the selected register. See "ts8820ctl.c" and "ts8820.c" for an example of how this process works.

The following command would set DAC output 1 to 0.5 V:

ts8820ctl --setdac=1 --mvolts=500

3.7 Isolated CAN Port

The TS-8820 provides an isolated CAN port on the P10 terminal block. The CAN interface itself is from the CoM with the TS-8820 facilitating the isolated physical interface.

More information about the CAN interface is available in the TS-4100 manual.

3.8 Isolated RS-232

The TS-8820 provides a single isolated RS-232 port on the P10 terminal block. The UART interface itself is from the CoM with the TS-8820 facilitating the isolated RS-232 physical interface.

By default, this UART port is connected to the ttymxc1 device on the TS-4100.

3.9 Isolated RS-485

The TS-8820 provides a single isolated RS-485 port on the P10 terminal block. The UART interface itself is from the CoM with the TS-8820 facilitating the isolated RS-485 physical interface.

By default, this port is connected to the ttymxc3 on the TS-4100. The TS-4100 uses an automatic TXEN for half-duplex RS-485 handled by a CPU GPIO pin. However in order for this to function, it is necessary to modify the TS-4100 FPGA crossbar mux to route this CPU GPIO pin to the TXEN pin on the TS-8820. The following command needs to be run each time the unit is powered on in order for RS-485 to properly function:

tshwctl --addr 177 --poke 2

This connects the CPU GPIO pin directly to the RS-485 TXEN pin on the TS-8820 via internal switches in the TS-4100 FPGA.

3.10 Relays

The TS-8820 provides 4 mechanical SPDT relays. Each relay has a common connection, a normally open (NO), and normally closed (NC) contact. All 4 sets of contacts are located on the P8 terminal block.

These 4 relays are manipulated by GPIO from the CoM, not the TS-8820 itself. The relays are controlled by the following GPIO pins:

Relay DIO
1 DIO_8
2 DIO_7
3 DIO_6
4 DIO_4

See the TS-4100 GPIO manual for information on how to manipulate the GPIO for the relays.

3.11 Power Supply

The TS-8820 can be powered via PoE or direct DC voltage input to the terminal block connectors. If PoE is not used, power must be supplied on terminal block P6. Supply an external ground on terminal 10, 11, and/or 12. Supply +10V to +30V on terminal 7, 8, and/or 9.

3.11.1 Terminal Blocks

Direct power input can be applied to the P6 terminal block. There are three terminals for power and three for a ground connection. Each of the three sets of terminals are electrically connected together internally in the TS-8820. Operational range of the TS-8820 is +10 VDC to +30 VDC on these inputs.

3.11.2 802.3af PoE

The TS-8820 is IEEE 802.3af PoE compliant. This allows the whole unit to be powered directly from a PoE sourcing device.

When powered via PoE, +24 VDC is made available on the P6 terminal block power terminals. Ensure that the total power draw does not exceed the limits defined by IEEE 802.3af!

3.12 LEDs

The TS-8820 has 27 LEDs used to indicate the electrical status of the inputs and outputs on the device. RED_LED and GREEN_LED are user-defined and programmable via the [#Syscon]. These LEDs are labelled via LED_# on the PCB silkscreen.

1 System RED_LED 2 Doesn't exist.
3 System Power 4 System GREEN_LED
9 DIG_IN1 10 DIG_IN2
11 DIG_IN3 12 DIG_IN4
13 DIG_IN5 14 DIG_IN6
15 DIG_IN7 16 DIG_IN8
21 DIG_IN9 22 DIG_IN10
23 DIG_IN11 24 DIG_IN12
25 DIG_IN13 26 DIG_IN14

4 External Interfaces

4.1 Terminal Blocks

Note: If you have a REV A board disregard the P1-P10 labeling as printed on the PCB.


Pin Description
1 IN1+
2 IN1-
3 IN2+
4 IN2-
5 IN3+
6 IN3-
7 IN4+
8 IN4-
9 IN5+
10 IN5-
11 IN6+
12 IN6-
Pin Description
1 IN 9
2 IN 10
3 Ground
4 IN 11
5 IN 12
6 Ground
7 IN 13
8 IN 14
9 Ground
10 OUT 5
11 OUT 6
12 Ground
Pin Description
1 ADC Channel 13
2 Ground
3 ADC Channel 14
4 Ground
5 ADC Channel 15
6 Ground
7 ADC Channel 16
8 Ground
9 DAC 1
10 Ground
11 DAC 2
12 Ground
Pin Description
1 ADC Channel 7
2 Ground
3 ADC Channel 8
4 Ground
5 ADC Channel 9
6 Ground
7 ADC Channel 10
8 Ground
9 ADC Channel 11
10 Ground
11 ADC Channel 12
12 Ground
Pin Description
1 ADC Channel 1
2 Ground
3 ADC Channel 2
4 Ground
5 ADC Channel 3
6 Ground
7 ADC Channel 4
8 Ground
9 ADC Channel 5
10 Ground
11 ADC Channel 6
12 Ground
Pin Description
5 Ground
6 Ground
7 EXT_12V_24V
8 EXT_12V_24V
9 EXT_12V_24V
Pin Description
1 IN7+
2 IN7-
3 IN8+
4 IN8-
5 OUT1+
6 OUT1-
7 OUT2+
8 OUT2-
9 OUT3+
10 OUT3-
11 OUT4+
12 OUT4-
Pin Description
1 Relay 1 NO
2 Relay 1 COM
3 Relay 1 NC
4 Relay 2 NO
5 Relay 2 COM
6 Relay 2 NC
7 Relay 3 NO
8 Relay 3 COM
9 Relay 3 NC
10 Relay 4 NO
11 Relay 4 COM
12 Relay 4 NC
Pin Description
1 DAC 3
2 Ground
3 DAC 4
4 Ground
5 Spare 1
6 Spare 2
7 Spare 3
8 Spare 4
9 Spare 5
10 Spare 6
11 Spare 7
12 Spare 8
Pin Description
1 Not Connected
2 Not Connected
3 ISO Common
4 ISO Common
9 Not Connected
10 CAN Common
11 CAN_H
12 CAN_L

4.2 Ethernet Connector

The TS-8820 can connect to any Ethernet LAN. The Ethernet connector includes LEDs indicating link and activity. The link LED should be on whenever the TS-8820 is powered and connected to a LAN. This connector allows the TS-8820 to be powered by PoE.

4.3 USB Host

The USB is available on two ports as a USB 2.0 host.

USB Host
Header PIN Name
1 USB_5V

4.4 DB9 Connector

DB9 Connector
Pin Description
1 XUART4 RS485+
2 Debug Console RS232 RXD
3 Debug Console RS232 TXD
4 Not Connected
5 Ground
6 XUART4 RS485-
9 Not Connected

5 Register Map

Most of the access to the IO should be abstracted by ts8820ctl and ts8820.c, but you can also access these IO directly through the MUXBUS registers.

Offset Bits Description
0x0 15:0 Model ID: Reads 0x8820
0x2 15:11 Reserved
10 Pull-up 5-8 enable
9 Pull-up 3-4 enable
8 Pull-up 1-2 enable
7 H-bridge 2 enable (contacts go high-Z otherwise)
6 H-bridge 1 enable (contacts go high-Z otherwise)
5 H-bridge 2 direction
4 H-bridge 1 direction
3:0 FPGA Revision
0x4 15:14 Reserved
13:0 Digital inputs 14:1
0x6 15:10 Reserved
9:0 SRAM Page register
0x8 15:12 Reserved
11:6 Override Digital Outputs 6:1 with PWM
5:0 Digital Output Values 6:1
0xa 15:0 Reserved
0xc 15:0 Reserved
0xe 15:0 Reserved
0x10 15:13 PWM #1 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #1 Duty Cycle
0x12 15:13 PWM #2 Prescalar
12:0 PWM #2 Duty Cycle
0x14 15:13 PWM #3 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #3 Duty Cycle
0x16 15:13 PWM #4 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #4 Duty Cycle
0x18 15:13 PWM #5 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #5 Duty Cycle
0x1a 15:13 PWM #6 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #6 Duty Cycle
0x1c 15:13 PWM #7 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #7 Duty Cycle
0x1e 15:13 PWM #8 Prescaler
12:0 PWM #8 Duty Cycle
0x20 15:0 Pulse Counter #1 (RO)
0x22 15:0 Pulse Counter #2 (RO)
0x24 15:0 Pulse Counter #3 (RO)
0x26 15:0 Pulse Counter #4 (RO)
0x28 15:0 Pulse Counter #5 (RO)
0x2a 15:0 Pulse Counter #6 (RO)
0x2c 15:0 Pulse Counter #7 (RO)
0x2e 15:0 Pulse Counter #8 (RO)
0x30 15:0 Pulse Counter #9 (RO)
0x32 15:0 Pulse Counter #10 (RO)
0x34 15:0 Pulse Counter #11 (RO)
0x36 15:0 Pulse Counter #12 (RO)
0x38 15:0 Pulse Counter #13 (RO)
0x3a 15:0 Pulse Counter #14 (RO)
0x3c 15:0 Reserved
0x3e 15:0 Reserved
0x80 15:0 ADC Core ID (reads 0xadc1)
0x82 15:8 ADC Channel Mask (0 = do not save channel data)
7:6 Highest number chip to use (0-3, if 01 then sample chip 0 and chip 1)
5 1 = Force standby
4 1 = Use standby between samples to save power
3 1 = Smart DMA IRQ mode
2 1 = Enable IRQ
1 1 = Collect samples, 0 = stop
0 1 = Reset ADC chips and all FIFOs
0x84 15 1 = There has been a FIFO overflow since last reset
14:0 Number of samples available to be read
0x86 15:0 Sample Data (RO)
0x88 15:0 Sampling period LSB (RW)
0x8a 15:0 Sampling period MSB (RW)
0x8c 15:0 IRQ Threshold (RW)
0x8e 15:0 DMA transfer size for smart mode (RW) (TODO)
0x90 15:0 Reserved
0x92 15:0 Reserved
0x94 15:0 Reserved
0x96 15:0 Reserved
0x98 15:0 Reserved
0x9a 15:0 Reserved
0x9c 15:0 Reserved
0x9e 15:0 Reserved
0xa0 15:0 DAC 1 Control Register
0xa2 15:0 DAC 2 Control Register
0xa4 15:0 DAC 3 Control Register
0xa6 15:0 DAC 4 Control Register

6 Product Notes

6.1 FCC Advisory

This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used properly (that is, in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions), may cause interference to radio and television reception. It has been type tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC Rules, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference, in which case the owner will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.

If this equipment does cause interference, which can be determined by turning the unit on and off, the user is encouraged to try the following measures to correct the interference:

Reorient the receiving antenna. Relocate the unit with respect to the receiver. Plug the unit into a different outlet so that the unit and receiver are on different branch circuits. Ensure that mounting screws and connector attachment screws are tightly secured. Ensure that good quality, shielded, and grounded cables are used for all data communications. If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions. The following booklets prepared by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) may also prove helpful:

How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems (Stock No. 004-000-000345-4) Interface Handbook (Stock No. 004-000-004505-7) These booklets may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

6.2 Limited Warranty

Technologic Systems warrants this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from date of purchase. During this warranty period Technologic Systems will repair or replace the defective unit in accordance with the following process:

A copy of the original invoice must be included when returning the defective unit to Technologic Systems, Inc. This limited warranty does not cover damages resulting from lightning or other power surges, misuse, abuse, abnormal conditions of operation, or attempts to alter or modify the function of the product.

This warranty is limited to the repair or replacement of the defective unit. In no event shall Technologic Systems be liable or responsible for any loss or damages, including but not limited to any lost profits, incidental or consequential damages, loss of business, or anticipatory profits arising from the use or inability to use this product.

Repairs made after the expiration of the warranty period are subject to a repair charge and the cost of return shipping. Please, contact Technologic Systems to arrange for any repair service and to obtain repair charge information.